List of abbreviations used in the stemmata

Updated 26th September 2015
~ married  
* born  
not in use reserved for future use
down arrow issue indicates descendents, see relevant stemma
left/right arrow look left or right the person is repeated elsewhere in the stemma
ab from used to indication geographical home location / town
ab epist ab epistulis the emperor's chief secretary; post held by a senior equestrian procurator
a libel a libellis "in charge of petitions"; post held by senior equestrian procurator
adlect adlectus enrolled into the senate directly with a rank, eg. adlectus inter consulares or inter tribunicios, without having had the office of consul; or enrolled as a Patrician (adlectus inter patricios)
advocat fisci advocatus fisci junior equestrian procuratorship created by Hadrian
adop adopted also test(amentary) adoption
aed aedilis local magistrate of town (outside Rome)
aed cer aedilis cerialis magistrate, magistracy held after the quaestorship, before the praetorship
aed cur aedilis curulis magistrate, magistracy held after the quaestorship, before the praetorship
aed pleb aedilis plebis magistrate, magistracy held after the quaestorship,before the praetorship Plebeian only
Aegyp Aegyptus province of Egypt, run by equestrian praefect
aerar mil aerarium militare the military treasury at Rome established 6 AD, office held by a praefectus aerarii militaris, an ex-praetor
aerar Satur aerarium Saturni the state treasury, housed in the temple of Saturn, office held by a praefectus aerarii Saturni, an ex-praetor
agens vice praesid agens vices praesidis "acting governor"
alae alae a unit of auxiliary cavalry of 300/500/1000 men, commanded by a praefectus anno incertum unknown year
amb ambassador used for legatus as ambassador to a foreign nation to avoid confusion with legatus used as a general or governor. Normally three or more senators were dispatched in an embassy.
ante or a before  
a ration a rationibus "in charge of accounts"; post held by a senior equestrian procurator
Aquit Aquitania province in SW France
archon archon chief magistrate at Athens
aug augur priest belonging to the college of augurs. Increased to 15 members by Sulla. The emperor always headed the college.
Aug Augusti or Augustorum belonging to the Emperor
Brit Britannia province of Britannia (= present-day England and Wales).
c. or ca circa about
cand candidatus candidate for office (Republic) or senator supported by the emperor in election to a magistracy, e.g. q(uaestor) cand(idatus) (Empire)
Cappa Cappadocia province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor.
cens censor magistrate. Iin the Republic two were elected every 5th year, were normally ex-consuls
cent centurio centurion, officer commanding a century (normally 80 soldiers) in a legion or auxiliary cohort.
centarius centarius "100.000 sertertii man; salary grade of procurators
class classis naval or fleet
coh cohors cohort, an infantry unit of ca 500-600 men, 10 per legion. Auxiliary infantry units were also termed cohorts (500 or 1000 men.
comes Aug comes Augusti "companion of the emperor"; senior member of the emperor's staff on campaign
cor mur corona muralis mural crown, an award given to the man who first scaled the enemies' walls
cor val corona vallari rampart crown, award give for valour at the enemies rampart
cos consul supreme annual dual magistrate, held earliest when aged 42 (Republic) or aged 33 (Empire). See "ord" and "suff" below
curat aqua curator aquarum magistrate to oversee Rome's water supply, office established 11BC for ex-consuls.
curat aed curator aedium sacrarum magistrate of temples at Rome, post held by ex-consul during empire
curat oper public curator operum publicorum magistrate of public works at Rome
curat "city" curator rei publica "city" Imperial temporary magistrate assigned to a Roman city with for example fiscal problems; office held by a senator, often an ex-praetor
curat Tib curator alvei Tiberis et riparum et cloacarum urbis magistrate to oversee the bed and banks of the Tiber river and the sewers of the city, post held by an ex-consul.
curat viae curator viae magistrate in charge of road maintenance in Italy, mostly held by a senator.
Dacia Apul Dacia Apulensis Roman province in Dacia (modern Rumania)
Dacia Malv Dacia Maelvensis Roman province in Dacia (modern Rumania)
Dacia Porol Dacia Porolissensis Roman province in Dacia (modern Rumania)
Dem Demougin ID reference number in "Prosopographie des chevaliers Romains Julio-Claudiens".
desig designatus designated for office next year, i.e. cos desig
dict dictator supreme magistrate, in early republic held for 6 months either to deal with an emergency, to hold elections or perform a certain religious ceremony.
dt daughter  
ducenarius ducenarius "200.000 sestertii man"; salary-grade of procurators
dux dux general in late empire; comnmander of frontier troops
eng engaged engaged to be married
epistrat epistrategos viceroy of part of Egypt, e.g. of Thebais (Upper Egypt). Office held by an equestrian.
eques knight member of the Roman Ordo Equestor, also called vir egregius during the Empire
exc. executed  
f. filii son of, used in filiation
fem clar femina clarissima lady of senatorial family
flam flamen priest, the most important in Rome being the flamen Dialis, Martialis and Quirinalis; a female priest would be a flaminica.
FOS femmes de l'ordre sénatorial ID reference number referring to Raepsaet-Charlier's "Prosopographie des femmes de l'ordre sénatorial"
frat Arv.. frater Arvalis priest, a member of the Arval Brethren, a minor college of 12, but very important during the Empire, when normally occupied by ex-consuls. Membership was for life, but they elected from among themselves a magister and a promagister for 1 year.
Germ Inf or Sup Germania Inferior or Superior Roman provinces of Lower or Upper Germany
hasta pura spear without iron award to soldiers for bravery
Hisp Hispania Spain; Roman province
ideol Aegyp ideologus in Egypt judge in Egypt, an equestrian office
Illyr Illyricum Roman province in the Balkans
Imp imperator emperor
inf inferior lower, eg. province of Pannonia Inf(erior)
iuridicus iuridicus legatus iuridicus, a legate (a senator, often an ex-praetor) serving in an imperial province responsible for legal issues, e.g. implementing Roman law.
k. killed in battle  
leg. legatus legate = general. A legatus could also serve as an ambassador or governor .
leg Aug legatus Augusti pro praetore provincial governor of an imperial province
leg leg legatus legionis commander of a legion, normally of praetorian rank, normally served 3 years
logistes logistes official inspecting finances of cities in the Greek-speaking part of the empire
ludi saec ludi saeculares secular games celebrated roughly every 100/110 years, eg. 17BC, 88AD, 204AD
Lugd Gallia Lugdunensis Roman province in France
Lusit Hispania Lusitania Roman province in the Iberian peninsula, ca. equal to modern Portugal.
m eq magister equitum master of the horse, 2nd in command of a dictator
Maced Macedonia Roman province
Maur Mauretania Roman province; either Maur Ting(itana) or Maur Caes(ariensis), if alone then covers both Mauretanias)
Max Maximus greatest
ment mentioned e.g. mentioned at meeting or on dated inscription
monet IIIvir monetalis mintmaster; IIIvir responsible for coinage. The offical term was "tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo" (abbreviated III VIR AAAFF), literally "three men for striking (and) casting bronze, silver (and) gold (coins)"
murd. murdered  
n. nepos grandson of; used in filiation
Narbon Gallia Narbonensis Roman senatorial province in Gaul (= modern Provence in France)
Nic Nicolet ID reference number to "L'Ordre Équestre a l'époque republicaine (312-43 av. J.-C."
novus homo novus homo "new man"; who was first in his family to reach senatorial rank
ob. obiit deceased
ord ordenarius The two consuls entering office on January 1st and giving name to the year were called consules ordenarii.
ornam cos ornamenta consularia promoted to consul without holding the office
ornam triumph ornamenta triumphalia "honorary triumph", highest decoration conferred on senatorial army commander after successful campaign; not conferred after Hadrian's time
Pann Pannonia Roman province, Pannonia Inferior or Pannonia Superior, roughly in present Hungary
Pamph Pamphylia Roman province in Asia Minor; often part of combined province of Lycia et Pamphylia.
patron patronus "patron" of a province or town, high ranking person expected to support the interests of his clients
Pf Pflaum ID reference number to Pflaum's "Les carrieres procuratoriennes equestres sous le haut-empire Romain".
PIR.t Prosopographica Imperii Romani see Bibliography
pont pontifex priest, member of the college of pontifices. At first 5 members, 300BC increased to 9 and from c.81BC increased to 15 members incl. the Pontifex Maximus.
pont max pontifex maximus head of the college of pontifices; the emperor always held this priesthood
post or p. after  
pr praetor magistrate, ranks below consul, held when aged 39 (Republic) or aged 30 (Empire) years of age; e.g. praetor urb(anus), praetor pereg(rinus)
pr pereg praetor peregrinus president of the court at Rome dealing with disputes between citizens and foreigners (peregrini)
pr urb praetor urbanus praetor dealing with disputes between Roman citizens
praef praefectus officer (e.g. praef coh - commander of a cohort) or magistrate (e.g. praef annonae) or a governor of a small province (e.g. Judaea)
praef alimen or praefectus alimentorum senator supervising the alimenta (child support scheme, founded by Trajan) in Italy
praef ann or praefectus annonae official supervising the food-supply for Rome, post held by a very senior eques
praef cast or praefectus castrorum camp-prefect; former centurion, 3rd in command of a legion
praef equit or praefectus equitum prefect of cavalry
praef feria Latin or praefectus feriarum Latinarum young man of senatorial rank who deputized for the consuls at Rome while they performed the annual Latin Festival at Alba
praef frum dandi or praefectus frumenti dandi 4 ex-praetors responsible for the distribution of food.
praef Minic or praefectus Miniciae from the Severan period onwards, senator of praetorian rank, with offices in the Minician Portico, who supervised the food- and water-supply at Rome.
praef pr or PP or praefectus praetorio commander of the praetorian guard (of which there were normally 2), by 300 AD a purely administrative office. Post was considered the most senior for an eques (from Claudius onwards).
praef urb or PUR praefectus urbi "mayor" of the city of Rome, post held by a senior ex-consul.
praef vig or praefectus vigilum commander of the 7 cohorts of Vigiles in Rome, post held by a senior eques.
praeses praeses governor, term used from 2nd century onwards.
praet praetorian e.g. used with cohort = III Praetorian Cohort.
primipilaris primipilaris former chief centurion of a legion
primus pilus primus pilus "first spear"; chief centurion of a legion
proc procurator governor of small province (e.g. Corscia), or head of a ministry (e.g. procurator a rationibus (finance), a libellis (petitions), ab epistulis Latinis/Graecis (correspondance)) or a financial official serving in a province or part of a province or with a specfic task (eg. proc. XX hereditarium (tax on inheritances). These offices were held by an equestrian.
procos proconsul promagistrate, a consul who's magistracy is extended in time; governor of a province, who could be an ex-praetor. Under the empire governor of a senatorial province, e.g. Africa and Asia.
propr propraetor or pro praetore magistrate, a praetor who's magistracy is extended in time (Republic) or an imperial governor who acts pro praetore under the emperor's imperium (e.g. legatus Augusti pro praetore)
PS Princeps Senatus senior consular of the senate during the Republic chosen by the censors
puella puella = girl eg. puella clar = a girl of senatorial family
puer puer = boy eg. puer clar = a boy of senatorial family
q quaestor financial magistrate, the quaestorship provided membership to the senate, held earliest when 25 (Empire) or 30 (Republic) years of age
q Aug quaestor Augusti quaestor attached to the emperor, specially estimed office
q propr quaestor pro praetore quaestor in one of the proconsular provinces
quinq quinquennalis "fifth-year" official in a town, whose duties were modelled on those of the censor at Rome elected every 5th year.
rationalis rationalis financial official
RE Realencyclopaedia refers to entry in the RE
rex sacr rex sacrorum a priesthood dating back to the kings, during the republic held by a patrician.
RPC Rei Publicae Constituendae The IIIviri RPC (Octavian, M.Antonius and M.Lepidus) held consular imperium for 5 years in 43BC.
sacerdos sacerdos priest
salius Pal salius Palatinus priest, a college of 12 priests dedicated to the god Mars, more important during the Empire, members were Patrician. Appointed when youths/young men, and retired when appointed to a major priesthood
salius Col salius Collinus priest, a college of 12 priests dedicated to the god Quirinus, more important during the Empire, members were Patrician. Appointed when youths/young men, and retired when appointed to a major priesthood.
sen senator senator, also called vir clarissimus during the Empire
sexagenarius sexagenarius "60.000 sestertii man; salary-grade of procurators
sodal sodalis priest; for example sodalis Augustalis, new senatorial priesthood established after Augustus' death to cunduct worship. Later deified emperors (e.g. Claudius = Claudialis, Vespasian & Titus = Flavialis Titialis , Hadrian = Hadrianalis, Antoninus = Antonianus)also had their own priesthoods. Also Sodales Titii (worship of king Tatius), which existed during the Republic and Empire.
s.p. sine prole no offspring
s.p.m. sine prole masculinum no male offspring
sub under used with the name of an emperor to indicate a date during that period when this emperor ruled
suff suffectus replacement magistrate when a magistrate died in office; during the Empire the 2 consuls taking office on January 1st (called consul ordenarius)were normally replaced by one or more sets of 2 consules suffecti.
sup superior upper, eg. province of Pannonia Sup(erior)
Tarrac Hispania Tarraconensis largest Roman province in Spain
trecenarius trecenarius "300.000 sestertii man"; salary grade of procurators
tr cos tribuni militum consulari potestate military tribune with consular power; magistrates between 444-366 BC in stead of consuls
tr coh tribunus cohortis tribune (commanding officer) of a cohort
tr laticlav tribunus laticlavius see tribunus militum
tr mil tribunus militum officer (= ca colonel), six per legion. The second-in-command to the legate was the tribunus laticlavius or 'broad-stripe' tribune, usually a young man of senatorial rank. The other 5 lower rank tribunes were called the tribuni angusticlavii. These were men of equestrian rank, who had military experience.
tr pl tribunus plebis magistrate (tribune of the people), 10 elected annually taking office on December 10th. Thus a tr pl for 100 BC is here used to mean the magistrate entered office on Dec 10th year 101 BC. Only plebeians could stand and at least during the empire had to have been previously quaestor.
trib. tribus Roman tribe, see separate section on the 35 Roman tribes and their abbreviations
urb urbi or urbanus urban; eg. praetor urbanus, praefectus urbi
vestal vestalis virgo vestal virgin, a female priest. 6 vestals served for 30 years. The longest serving was the Virgo Vestalis Maxima.
vex vexillum military award for bravery
vexil vexillatio a detachment, typically a deatchment of one or more cohorts from a legion sent to a province as a temporary reinforcement
XX hered vicesima hereditatium twentieth of inheritances; i.e. the 5% death-duty
vir clar vir clarissimus most distinguished man, term used for senatorial status under the Empire, not just for senators, but also for their family
vir egreg vir egregius outstanding man, term used for men having served in an equestrian office (e.g. procurator) under the empire
vir perfect vir perfectissimus most perfect man, term used for a senior equestrian official from the 3rd century
vig vigiles night police / fire brigade (7 cohorts) in Rome led by a praefectus
IIvir duumvir college of two, eg. IIvir navalis, or IIvir as local magistrate of town
IIIvir cap triumvir capitales college of three (tresviri) to deal with capital charges. One of the boards of the virgintiviri
IIIvir col deduc triumvir colonia deducandae college of three senators appointed to establish new colony
IIIIvir quattorvir 4 member magistracy, eg. IIII iure dicundo, local town magistrates.
IIIIvir via cur quattorvir viarum curandarum 4 member magistracy for looking after the streets of Rome; one of the boards of the XXviri
VIIvir epu. septemvir Epulones priest; member of seven (earlier three) member college (founded 196 BC) who supervised sacrificial banquets
Xvir stlit iudic decemvir stlitibus iudicandis "the ten men who judge lawsuits", annual pre-senatorial minor magistrate
XVvir sf quindecemvir sacris faciundis priest; member of 15 (before Sulla c.80BC ten members = Xvir) man college
XXvir virgintivir a college of 20 minor magistrates during the Empire; comprising the Xviri stlit iudic, the 3 monetales, the tresviri capitales, and the quattorviri viarum curandarum. Normally the first civilian office for future senators.

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