Created: 17th January 2014
Update:  21st November 2021
Kings: Polemon I of Pontus and Bosporus, Polemon I and II of Cilicia, Zeno-Artaxias III of Armenia,
Imperial Family / Cognomen
Imperators n/a
Consular Zeno
Senatorial Lupus
Equestrian Zeno
Equestrian (mil) Zeno
Local magistrat. n/a
Uncertain n/a
Republican Consuls, Tribunes with consular power, Dictators, Magister Equitum, Censors n/a
Imperial Consuls and Emperors (Augusti and Caesars) 2 incl. 0 emperors
Notes: Covers the descendants of Pythodorus of Tralles and Zenon, rhetor of Laodicea. Many are not in RE or PIR or are covered by different ID's.
This stemma follows the final proposal from Settipani in addenda 2002. Alternatives are eminently possible. Antonia, Mark Anthony's eldest daughter, may well not 
be an ancestor. Also M. Philopator, priest,  may not be the dynast of Olba. The wives of M. Antonius Polemo II may be the wives  of Iulius Polemon II.
 King Artaxias III may not be the same man as the L. Antonius.  Etc.etc.
Whether Polemon II of Pontus (a Iulius) is the same man as M. Antonius Polemon is still disputed among scholars.
Literature Alföldy: Konsulat (1977) p.152,211,258,268,319,325 (M . Antonius Zeno, cos suff 148, Thracia attested 142), p.197,211,321,325 (M. Antonius Zeno, cos suff c.168/170)
Baldus, H.R.: Die Daten von Münzprägung und Tod der Königin Pythodoris von Pontus, Chiron 13, 1983, p.537-543.(dates Pythodoris' death to 33 AD)
Barrett, A.A.: "Polemo II of Pontus and M. Antonius Polemo", in Historia 27, 1978, p.437-48  (concerning Polemo A864. He argues that they are two separate individuals.)
Braund, David: "Polemo, Pythodoris and Strabo. Friends of Rome in the Black Sea Region", in A. Coskun (edit): Roms auswärtige Freunde in der späten Republik und 
im frühen Prinzipat, Göttingen 2005, p.253-270.  (doubts descent from the triumvir M. Antonius) (NOT AVAILABLE TO ME)
Campanile: I Sacerdoti (1994) p.36-37 (§11 L. Antonius Zeno, archiereus, A882),
Ceylan and Ritti: "L. Antonius Zenon" in Epigraphica: Rivista italiana di epigrafia 49, 1987 p.77-98 (stemma on p.87 and 93) (he makes L. Antonius the grandson of 
Zenon, the brother of King Polemo I of Pontus
Cojocaru, Victor: "Antonia Tryphaina im ostlichen dynastischen Netzwerk", in The Danubian Lands between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas,  Proceedings of the
Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities, Belgrade - 17 - 21 September 2013, 2015, p.169-174
Cojocaru, Victor: "Antonia Tryphaina", in Pontica 45, 2012 p.119-134
Cojocaru, Victor: "Once more about Antonia Tryphaina", in Journal of Ancient History and Archeology 14 2014 p.3-8
Coskun, Altay: "Amici Populi Romani", Version 10, 31 December 2020 (
Crook: Consilium Principis (1955) p.151 (§25 Antonius Polemo, A862, amicus of Hadrian)
Deline: Women in Criminal Trials (2009) p.269-271 (§10 Antonia Tryphaena, in 18 AD she had her husband's murderer king Rhescupoiris of Thracia brought to trial in Rome)
Dmitriev, Sviatoslav: "Claudius' Grant of Cilicia to Polemo", in The Classical Quarterly, Vol. 53, 2003, pp.286-291
Fitz: Pannonien (1993-1995) p.675-676 (§378 M. Antonius Antius Lupus, tr mil II Adi in Pann)
Gotter, Ulrich: "Tempel und Grossmacht : Olbal Diokaisareia und das Imperium Romanum" in La Cilicie : espaces et pouvoirs locaux (IIe millénaire av. J.-C. – IVe siècle ap. J.-C.).
Actes de la Table Ronde d’Istanbul, 2-5 novembre 1999. Istanbul : Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes-Georges Dumézil, 2001. pp. 289-325. (Varia Anatolica, 13);
especially p.315-320 (Appendix I : Identität und Alteritat der Polemones im Kleinasien des 1. Jahrhunderts n. Chr.: conclusion is that M. Antonius Polemo II of Olba 
and Polemo II of Pontus are identical)
Halfmann: Senatoren (1979) p.162-163 (§74 M. Antonius Zeno cos suff 148), p.183 (§105 M. Antonius Zeno cos suff c.168/170), p.109 (M. Antonius Antius Lupus)
Kokkinos: Herodian Dynasty (2010) p.381-382 (Appendix 6: Identity of Polemo husband of Berenice II: Kokkinos prefers Berenice's third husband to be Iulius Polemo II
of Pontus and Eastern Cilicia (= Pedias)
Leunissen: Konsuln (1989) p.213 (M. Antonius Zeno, cos suff c.168/170, procos Africa 183/4 or 184/185)
PIR v.2 letter P (1998) p.232 (stemma of Pythodoris)
Puech, Bernadette: "Orateurs et sophistes grecs dans les inscriptions d’époque impériale", Paris, 2002, p.156 (M. Antonius Attalos, sophist), 
p.396-406 (M. Antonius Polemon, A862) p.527-530 (with stemma p.530, very different)
Raepsaet-Charlier: PFOS (1987) stemma XXXII (Antonii and Claudii)
Salomies: Nomenclature (1992) p.65 (M. Antonius Antius Lupus; used Antius as primary gens)
Schumacher: Prosopographische Untersuchungen 96-235 (1973) p.58 (§B29 M. Antonius Antius Lupus, augur † c.191)
Settipani: Continuite p.362-367 for the descendents of Queen Pythodoris. 
Settipani: Continuite addenda  (2001/2004) p.51-55, 109-111 (discussion of many called Polemo/Polemon with stemmata p.55, 109 and 111. The final version followed below)
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Dynasts in Pontus", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Bd.II,7.2, 1980, pp.913-930 with stemma opposite p.928. 
He believes they descend from Anthony's daughter and that A864 (M. Antonius Polemo) is the same as King Iulius Polemon II (J472).
Sullivan, Richard D.: "King Marcus Antonius Polemo", in The Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 19, 1979, p.6-20 (argues that the dynast of Olba (A864) is the same man 
as the king of Pontus (J472).)
Thonemann, Peter J.: "Polemo, Son of Polemo (Dio. 59.12.2.)", in Epigraphica Anatolica 37, 2004, p.144-150 with stemma p.150 (very different he makes M. Antonius Polemo
A864 the father of L. Antonius Zeno. Artaxias III remains as brother to A864 and A900.
Thonemann, Peter J.: "The Maeander Valley : a historical geography from antiquity to Byzantium"  Cambridge University Press 2011, p.205-218 (The Antonii of Laodicea:
stemma p.207, he makes L. Antonius Zeno, the tr mil, A882, a son of M. Antonius Polemon I and thus a nephew of king Zeno-Artaxias A1168)
Thomasson: Fasti Africani (1996) p.72 (§92 M. Antonius Zeno, procos under Commodus)
Changes 2014.01.17: Stemma of Antonius Zeno and Antonius Polemo split off from rest of Antonii. 
2014.11.08: added article by Sullivan, added wives to Polemon II
2015.01.10: added Sullivan's article from 1979, Dmitriev'ss article and a comment on Barrett's article.
2021.11.21: new header, added full literature list, many minor updates, but main stemma unchanged
of Nysa, great landowner,
son of Pythedorus
mention supporting Rome 89 BC
RE Z8 P1116 RE Py 13
Zenon Pythedorus         Pythion
rhetor and eminent citizen of Laodicea on the Lycus, son of Chaeromon of Nysa, eponymous magistrate at Nysa 70/69
ment 40 BC native of Nysa, but active at Tralles, Munzen und Medaillen 13 (2003) 329 
Asiarch, friend of Pompeius Magnus
~34 Antonia euergetis
of Smyrna
Mommsen made her the eldest daughter of the Triumvir Mark Antonius († 30), 
  but this is just a conjecture. Some scholars accept this, most do not.
  RE Pol 2 P531   RE1 P1114 I Ephesus 615 I Trall 70
(Antonius) Zenon   (Antonius) Polemon I Eusebes c.12  2~1  Pythodoris Philometor           M. Antonius Pythodorus   Chaeremon
notable of Laodicea dynast of Cilicia Tracheia 39-37/6 * c.29 BC † 33 AD or by 38 honoured at Ephesus mention 26 BC
King of Pontus 37/6 - 8 BC  Queen of Pontus 8 BC-33 AD or 38/39
King of Bosporus 14 BC- 8 BC † 8 BC 2 ~ Archelaus King of Cappadocia 41/36 BC-17 AD
14 1~ 3 Dynamis, Queen of Bosporus, D211
16 BC - 7/8 AD
dt of Pharnaces II king of Bosporus  
I Kyme 19,55-58 A864 RE88 A1168 A882 Dem625 PME-A147 A900 RE130 I Trall 16
Polemon Zenon f. M. Antonius Polemo I Philipator       L. Antonius Polemonis f. Zeno   Antonia Tryphaena (Sumptuous) Hierocles
priest of Rome at Kyme, eponym priest of Laodicea c.15 trib Cor. * 12/8 BC eponymous priest
2BC/14AD dynast / high priest of Olba in Cilicia c.17-36 tr mil leg XII Ful, archiereus Asia, queen of Pontus 33?-38 at Tralles
(at least until his 11th year) eponym priest of Laodicea 4 times, ~ C. Iulius Cotys VIII
king of Cilicia 41 † 41/54 ? = Zeno-Artaxias III King of Thracia, † by 19 AD
? = J472 King of Armenia Maior 18-c.34
who was son of Polemon I Eusebes
?   A882 RE106 I.Laodikeia 53 J472 RE Pol 3
M. Antonius Polemo II         M. Antonius Polemon.f.  Antonia   Iulius Polemon II         see Thracia
King of Cilicia 54 - c.69 or 81 Zeno Philopappos archieraea King of Pontus 38-63 (last coin dated 62/3)
eponym priest of Laodicea 41/54 64 Pontus part of Roman province of Galatia
? 54 ~ Iulia Berenice II,  AE199-1634 undated ? King of Cilicia 41-68/9
dt of King Agrippa I of Judaea † 68/69 ? = A864
? 60 ~ Iulia Mamaea, sister of Sohaemus ? 1 ~ Iulia Berenice II, dt of King Agrippa I of Judaea
prince of Edessa   ? 2 ~ Iulia Mamaea, sister of Sohaemus prince of Edessa
coins see Pontus
(M.) Antonius Zenon.f. Zeno
eponym priest of Laodicea 54/68
? or son of L. Antonius Zeno A882
(M. Antonius)                     (L.) Antonius Alcimus  
notable of Laodicea
Lamb340 LP22-21  
A862 RE Pol10 A883 RE107   ? I.Laodikeia 67 
M. Antonius Polemo             M. Antonius Zeno     (M. Antonius) Attalus L. Antonius Zeno Aurelianus
from Laodicea in Phrygia, * c.89 leg Aug pro pr Thracia 144 notable from Laodicea "prophet" of Apollo at 
sophist at Laodicea and Smyrna 120-44 † 144 cos suff 148 ment as father of 2 girls c.130 Laodicea c.141/142
descended from royal family
RE22   RE107a PIR Addenda  
(M. Antonius) Attalus M. Antonius Zeno Ammia   Ancharene
sophist Laodicea c.185 cos suff 168/170 mention singing mention singing
honorary citizen of Smyrna, procos Africa 183/4 or 184/5 c.130 c.130
~ Antia L.f. Marcellina
   (or ~ to his father the cos 148)
C230   A812 A812 RE37 Rüpke654 Lamb1117 ? A901 RE131 FOS82
(Antonia) Callisto (M. Antonius Polemo) M. Antonius Antius Lupus         Antonia Vitellia
praef feriarum Latinarum, X vir stlit iudic, related to A812 Lupus
~ Flavius Rufinianus tr mil II Adi, sodalis Titius, q, augur,patricius, pr, ~ M. Valerius Bradua Mauricus
Rufus cos suff c.185 † c.191 (or 182) killed by Commodus cos 191
~ Claudia Regilla † by 191
dt of ? Claudius Appius Atilius 
  Bradua Regillus cos 185
  A785 FOS71
(M. Antonius Polemo) Antia Marcellina
† before father
A863 RE87
Antonius Polemo
coin from Milet 253/260
neocoros Smyrna,
archon Miletus
UNCERTAIN DATE                                                          
M. Antonius Zeno
procur in Africa
not in PIR ?