Created: 29th October 2021
Update: 29th October 2021
Notes: Characene is in southern Mesopotamia at the head of the Persian golf near the mouth of the Tigris river. Capital Spasinou Charax
Nearly all dates are based on coinage. Most family relations are just guesswork marked with two questionmarks. Dates are from Schuol.
Characene is known as Mesene, where under the Sasanians several royal princes were kings (shahs) of Mesene.
Literature Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I,Leiden, 2007, p.124-125
(baed on Schuol but also gives the indigenous names)
Honsman, John: "Charax And The Karkheh", in Iranica antiqua 7, 1967, p.21-27 (early Characene)
Nodelman, Sheldon Arthur: "A Preliminary History of Characene" in Berytus 13, 1960 p.83-121 (NOT AVAILABLE TO ME)
(suggests Hyspaosines broke with the Seleucids 141/139, but in general his work is now obsolete)
Potts, D.T.: "Arabia and the Kingdom of Characene", in Araby the Blest Copenhagen, 1988, p.137-167 (especially dealing with king Meredat)
Schuol, Monika: "Die Charakene, Ein mesopotamisches Konigreich in hellenistisch-partischer Zeit", Stuttgart, 2000, p.217-240, 291-378, and 465-466 (king list)
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Near Eastern Royalty and Rome 100-30 BC", University of Toronto Press 1990, section on Osrhoene p.109-110 and 376
Changes 2021.10.29 initial version
Bactrian name
Hyspaosines (Spaosines)
appointed satrap/eparch of the Erythaean Sea under the Seleucids c.165/6
1st king of Characene 128/7-124 BC
aged 85 in 124
~ Talasi'anu, mother of heir
king of Characene 124-104/3
a minor in 124
Parthian vassal c.123/2
first coins from 110/9-104/3
Tiraios I
king of Characene 95/4-90/89
only known from coins
RE2   brother/cousin RE4
Tiraios II               Artabazos I
king of Characene 79/8-49/8 king of Characene 90/89-79/78 ?
aged 92 king of Characene 49/8-c.48/7
?? aged 86 in 49/48
Attambelos I
king of Characene from 47/6-25/4
Theonesios I
king of Characene 25/4-19/18 BC
Attambelos II
king of Characene 17/6 BC-8/9 AD
Abinergaos I Orabazes I
king of Characene from c.10/11-13/14 AD king of Characene from c. 18/9 AD-22/3 AD
king of Characene from c.22/23 AD no coins
Attambelos III
king of Characene 37/8-44/5
Theonesios II
king of Characene from c.46/7
only known from one coin
Theonesios III
king of Characene from c.52/3
only known from one coin
Attambelos IV
king of Characene 54/5-64/5
  P32 RE3 ? O156 RE2
Attambelos V Pakoros II                 Osroes I
king of Characene c.64/5-73/4 king of Characene from c.80/1-101/2 king of Characene c.116/7-127/8
coin from 72/3 1. Parthian Interregnum 2. Parthian Interregnum
?? king of kings of Parthia 77/78-110 King of Kings W. Parthia 108/9-127/8
  V942 RE2 not in RE
Attambelos VI Vologases III         Meredat
king of Characene from 101/2-105/6 king of Characene c.127/8-130/1 king of Characene from c.130/1-150/1
?? 2. Parthian Interregnum attested 131 and on coin 143/4
  King of Parthia 105-147/8 expelled by Vologaises IV of Parthia
Theonesios IV
king of Characene 110/1-112/3
Attambelos VII
king of Characene from c.113/4-116/7
submitted to Trajan 116
Orabazes II
king of Characene 150/1-165
installed by Vologaises IV
family unknown
Abinergaos II
king of Characene c.165-180
probably from old native dynasty
180 very uncertain
Attambelos VIII
king of Characene from c.180-195
dating very uncertain
Maga ?
king of Characene c.195-210
son of Attambelos VIII
dating very uncertain
Abinergaos III ?
king of Characene c.210-222
Sasanids conquer Characene 222
no coins known