Gens: IULIUS, ROYAL HOUSE OF THRACIA  
Created: 16th November 2014
Update:  18th February 2015
Status Republic: Patrician:     Pleb. Nobilis:       Senatorial:      Eques Romanus:  
Republican Family / Cognomen
Patrician n/a
Pleb. Nobilis n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Imperial Family / Cognomen
Imperators n/a
Consular n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Republican Consuls, Tribunes with consular power, Dictators, Magister Equitum, Censors 0
Imperial Consuls and Emperors 0 incl. 0 emperors
Notes: There were two dynasties in Thrace in 1st century BC, the primary dynasty of the Astaea (extinguished 11 BC?), and the tribal kings of Sapaean Thracia, who then 11 BC became kings of all Thracia.
However, the last Astaean king seems to be Rhaiscuporis II, who in Version 1 below is a Sapaean ?  Thracia became a Roman province 46 AD. 
The relationship of the kings of Thracia is very uncertain. The entries in Wikipedia are based on obsolete literature from the 19th century (eg Smith, Mommsen)
The numbering of the kings named Cotys is also confused. Sullivan's attempt (1980) to define the stemma is given in Version 2 below (also stemma in PIR J p.264)
 For the Sapaei line I have followed the newer stemma in PIR R (1999)  p.59 given in Version 1 below..
Presumably most (all?) of the kings from Augustus onwards had also become Roman citizens named C.Iulius.
Spelling of names varies, e.g. the Bosporan kings are usually spelled Rescuporis, the Thracian Rhaiscuporis.
Literature Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I,Leiden, 2007 p.191-194
Kirov, Slavtcho: "Gaius Iulius Rhascos", in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 178, 2011, pp.215-220 argues that C,Iulius Rhascus is the son of  Rhoemetalces III (R68).
and not of Rhoemetalces II (J517).
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Near Eastern Royalty and Rome 100-30 BC", University of Toronto Press 1990, sections on Thrace p.25-30 and pp.145-151 with stemma 1 Thrace at bookend.
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Bd.II,7.1, 1980, pp.186-211 with stemma opposite p.193
Changes 8.1.2015: added Sullivan's book as reference, some minor clarifications
18.2.2015: added C.Iulius Rhascus, see new article by Kirov.
1. NEW VERSION BASED ON PIR R      
DYNASTY OF THE TRIBE OF THE ODRYSIANS-ASTAEA
Cotys V
King of Thracia c.100 - c.87 ?
founder of the Odrysian-Astaean dynasty DYNASTY OF THE TRIBE OF THE SAPAEI
 
  RE6
Sadalas I   Cotys I
King of Thracia c.87 - c.80 ? of Sapaean Thracia
possibly not a king but a dynast
   
RE4   RE1 R58 RE1
Cotys VI   Rhaiscuporis I         Rhascus  
King of Thracia c.58- 45/44 or Rhascypolis  I King of Sapaean Thracia c.42
King of Sapaean Thracia 48-42 coruler with his brother
   
  RE7 C1552 R67 RE1 R60 RE3 P531 RE2 P1114 RE1
Sadalas II Cotys II         Rhoemetalces I               Rhaiscuporis III Polemon I (Polemo I)  ~ 1 Pythodoris
King of Thracia 45/44-42 King of Sapaean Thracia King of Sapaean Thracia c.31BC - 11 BC or Rhascypolis  III King of Pontus 37 - 8 BC † 23 AD
c.42-.c.31 King of all Thracia 11 BC to c.12 AD joint King of Thracia  King of Bosporus 14 - 8  BC queen of
~ Polemocratia c.12-19 AD King of Armenia Minor 34/3- p 31BC of Pontus
† 19 exiled and killed son of Zeno of Laodicea
(see stemma Antonius
Zeno)
         
  C1553 RE5   R59 RE2   C1554 RE8 R69 cf RE3 A900 RE130 A1168 RE Art 3
Sadalas III     Cotys VII   ~ daughter   Rhaiscuporis II   ~ daughter (C.) Iulius Cotys VIII Rhoemetalces   Antonia Tryphaena   Zeno-Artaxias III daughter  
King of Thracia 42?-31 King of Thracia or Rhascypolis  II joint King of Thracia c.12-19 AD Queen of Pontus 33?-38 King of Armenia
attested only in 31BC 31-18 BC King of Thracia installed by AUGUSTUS 18-34 ~ Rhoemetalces II
at Actium with M.Antonius † by 18 BC 22 (?) - 11 BC † 19 murdered by Rhaiscuporis III ~ Cotys VIII  † 35 AD King of Thracia
† 11 BC killed in battle ~ Antonia Tryphaena King of Thracia <==
==> <==
     
? ? J517 RE2   R68 RE3   J472 RE Pol 3 C1555 RE9 G168 RE1
S(ex). Iulius [Cotys]   C.Iulius Rhoemetalces II (C.Iulius) Rhoemetalces III   Iulius Polemon II           (C.Iulius) Cotys IX       Gepaipyris
Thracian prince King of Thracia 19-26(38) King of Thracia 19 and c.38-46 King of Pontus 38-64 King of Armenia Minor 38-a.54
installed by CALIGULA King of Cilicia 41-68/9 after Roman rule 17-38 ~ Ti.Iulius Aspurgus
~ daughter of Polemon I archon Athens 36/37 64 Pontus part of Roman province of Galatia installed by CALIGULA King of Bosporus
==> murdered by his wife † 68/69 10/11 AD -38/39 
~ Pythodoris, dt of 1 ~ Iulia Berenice  of Judaea
Rhoemetalces II 2 ~ Iulia Mamaea of Emesa
King of Thracia
  <==  
P1115    
Pythodoris     children   C.Iulius Rhascus kings of Bosporus
inscription latest 44
~ Rhoemetalces III see Kirov's article
King of Thracia 38-46
==>
                                                                                         
2. OLD VERSION BASED ON SULLIVAN AND PIR J
DYNASTY OF THE TRIBE OF THE ODRYSIANS-ASTAEA
Cotys V 
King of Thracia c.100 - c.87 ?
founder of the Odrysian-Astaean dynasty DYNASTY OF THE TRIBE OF THE SAPAEI
 
  RE6
Sadalas I   Cotys I
King of Thracia c.87 - c.80 ? of Sapaean Thracia
possibly not a king or prince
   
RE4   RE1 R58 RE1
Cotys VI    Rhaiscuporis I         Rhascus  
King of Thracia c.58- 45/44 or Rhascypolis  I King of Sapaean Thracia c.42
King of Sapaean Thracia 48-42 coruler with his brother
founder of the Sapaean dynasty
   
  RE7 C1552
Sadalas II Cotys II  
King of Thracia 45/44-42 King of Sapaean Thracia
c.42-.c.31
~ Polemocratia
   
  C1553 RE5   R67 RE1 R60 RE3 P531 RE2 P1114 RE1
Sadalas III     Cotys VII   ~ daughter     Rhoemetalces I               Rhaiscuporis III   Polemon I (Polemo I)  ~ 1 Pythodoris
King of Thracia 31 King of Thracia King of Sapaean Thracia c.31BC - 11 BC or Rhascypolis  III King of Pontus 37 - 8 BC † 23 AD
attested only in 31BC 31-18 BC King of all Thracia 11 BC to c.12 AD King of Thracia  c.12-19 AD King of Bosporus 14 - 8  BC queen of
at Actium with M.Antonius † by 18 BC † 19 exiled and killed King of Armenia Minor 34/3- p 31BC of Pontus
~ niece son of Zeno of Laodicea
(see stemma Antonius
Zeno)
       
R59 RE2     C1554 RE8 RE2 J517 A900 RE130 A1168 RE Art 3
Rhaiscuporis II     sons   daughter     (C.) Iulius Cotys VIII C.Iulius Rhoemetalces II Antonia Tryphaena   Zeno-Artaxias III
or Rhascypolis  II King of Thracia c.12-19 AD King of Thracia 19-26/38 Queen of Pontus 33?-38 King of Armenia
King of Thracia 22 (?) - 11 BC ~ uncle installed by AUGUSTUS ~ Cotys VIII  18-34
~ niece Rhaiscuporis III † 19 murdered by Rhaiscuporis III ~ Pythodoris, dt of King of Thracia † 35 AD
~ Antonia Tryphaena Cotys VIII King of Thracia <==
==>
   
P1115 R68 RE3 J472 RE Pol 3   C1555 RE9 G168 RE1  
Pythodoris       (C.Iulius) Rhoemetalces III   Iulius Polemon II           (C.Iulius) Cotys IX       Gepaipyris
King of Thracia 19 and c.38-46 King of Pontus 38-64 King of Armenia Minor 38-a.54
installed by CALIGULA King of Cilicia 41-68/9 after Roman rule 17-38 ~ Ti.Iulius Aspurgus
~ Rhoemetalces II archon Athens 36/37 64 Pontus part of Roman province of Galatia installed by CALIGULA King of Bosporus
King of Thracia 19-26 AD murdered by his wife † 68/69 10/11 AD -38/39 
~ Pythodoris 1 ~ Iulia Berenice  of Judaea
2 ~ Iulia Mamaea of Emesa  
 
kings of Bosporus