Gens: ARSACID DYNASTY OF PARTHIA AND ARMENIA
Created: 20th November 2014
Update:  19th October 2017
Notes: Unfortunately no Parthian inscriptions with complete genealogies exist, so any genealogy is based on limited texts, cuneiform records and  numismatic evidence (coinage).
There are several variants and the connection of some kings is very conjectural. Also many regnal dates are uncertain. Numbering of kings also uncertain.
All the Parthian kings of the Arsacid dynasty took the name Arsaces after the founder, giving rise to some confusion.
My main pupose to include this stemma is to illuminate the dynastic connections to the other Eastern royal houses and not to document the many variants, therefore I have made a choice
based on "Brill's Chronologies" and Sullivan's stemma, now updated with Assar's analysis.
For some reason the many kings named Phraates do not have separate entries in the Realencyclopädie.
Literature Assar, Gholamreza F.:" A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C.", in Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87–158.
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 91-55 B.C.", in Parthica vol. 8, 2006, pp. 55–104
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers. I", in Parthica vol. 6, 2004, pp. 69–93
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers. II a revised stemma", in Parthica vol. 7, 2005, pp. 29–63
However I do not understand why Assar accepts Moses of Chorene's number of 26 years' reign for Arsaces II moving his reign from the traditional date of 211/210-190 to 211-185, since he does not accept 
Moses' other numbers for very long reigns for other kings e.g. 53 years for Arsaces III. By going for 26 years it just makes it possible (but very unlikely) that Mithradates II was a brother of Mithradates I. 
In later articles Assar does not seem to maintain that Mithradates I and II were brothers.
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "Moses of Chorene & the Early Parthian Chronology", in Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 61–86.
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "The Proper Name of the 2nd Parthian Ruler", in Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History, Vol. 4 (March 2008), 1-7. argues that Arsaces II's real name was Artabanus.
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "Some Remarks on the Chronology and Coinage of the Parthian Dark Age", in Electrum Vol.15, 2009, p.195-234
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "Terminal Date of Reign of Mithradates I of Parthia" in Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History, Vol. 2 (September 2006), 1-16 (in Farsi)
translated available on http://www.parthian-empire.com/articles/Terminal-Date-of-Reign-of-Mithradates-I-F.pdf
Assar convincably demonstrates that Mithradates I died in 132 BC and not 138 as previously thought.
Assar, Gholamreza F.: "The Genealogy of the Parthian King Sinatruces (93/2-69/8 BC)", in The Journal of the Classical & Medieval Numismatic Society, Serie 2, Vol. 6, 2005, p.16-33
Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I,Leiden, 2007 p.121-122
Ghashghai, Hamid Reza: "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009. (ONLY IN FARSI, NOT AVAILABLE TO ME)
Karras-Klapproth, Margarete: "Prosopographische Studien zur Geschichte des Partherreiches auf der Grundlage antiker literarischer Überlieferung", Dr. Rudolf Habelt Gmbh., Bonn 1988
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Near Eastern Royalty and Rome 100-30 BC", University of Toronto Press 1990, sections on Parthia (pp.112-120 and 300-318) with stemma 10 at bookend.
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Bd.II,8.2, 1977, stemma Parthia at book-end
Changes 5.5.2017: PIR references updated to reflect PIR2 letter V; RE references added; many articles added; dates and stemma for pre-50BC kings revised based on Assar's articles (IN RED).
19.10.2017: added Karras-Klapproth's book and minor updates. 
Arsacid Dynasty
Kings of Parthia
 
not in RE RE3
Arsaces I             Tiridates I
elected leader of Aparni tribe 247 (ruler of Parthia 246-238 ? and 217-210 ?)
ruler of Parthia c.238-217 (or 211/210) probably not a ruler
founder of the dynasty
   
not in RE  
Arsaces II (Artabanus I ?) son  
Ruler of Parthia 217 (or 211/210)-c.191/0
Ruler of Parthia 211-185
   
  not in RE
son   Phriapatius (Arsaces III)
(Phriapites)
King of Parthia c.191/0-176
King of Parthia 185-170
1st to be styled Basileus (King)
   
not in RE not in RE   RE21 RE6a not in RE RE5
(Arsaces IV) ? Phraates I     Mithradates I       Valarsaces     === Bagasis (Vagasis)   Artabanus I (II)  
King c.170/168 King of Parthia 176-171 King of Parthia 171-139/8 RE6a 970 governor of Media King of Parthia 128-124/3
not cetainly attested King of Parthia c.168-165 King of Parthia c.165-132 ? King of "Armenia" c.145 and Atropatene c.147 King of Parthia 126-122
a grt grdson of ~ Rinnu appointed by (= "Armenia") † 124/123 killed in battle
Arsaces I regent 138 (132-131/0) Mithradates I ? King of Parthia 127-126
       
  not in RE   not in RE RE1 not in RE ?   RE22
sons   Phraates II     Rhodogune   Sinatruces  Artabanus   (Arsaces (X))     Mithradates II the Great
passed over * c.146 (or Sanatruces) son of Bagasis (Artabanus ?) King of Parthia 124/3-88/87
by their father King of Parthia 139/8-128 ~ c.139 * c.157/6 thus eldest son general 120 King of Parthia 122-121 King of Parthia 121-91
as his successor King of Parthia 132-127 Demetrius II Nicator usurper king at Susa dismissed by 1st King of Kings 109/108
† 128 killed in battle king of Syria 93/92-88/87 Mithradates II ? ~ Aryazate (ment 88), dt of
~ Laodice,sister to 145-125 King of N.Parthia 77/6-70/69 Tigranes II King of Armenia 95-55
Antiochus VIII Grypos or 78/7-71/0
king of Syria 121-96 ~ Ishtar, ment 66 as queen-mother
  or brother to Mithradates II  
not in RE not in RE not in RE   not in RE not in RE ? not in RE
Phraates III Gotarzes I       Mithradates III       Azate   Siake   Arsaces (XVI?)  
King of Parthia 71/0-58/7 ruled Babylonia from c.110-91 King of Parthia 87-80 ment 88 ment 88 * c.93/92 personal name not known
King of North Parthia 70/69-67/6 King of Parthia 91-87 (or 81/0) overthrown by Orodes I ~ brother King ~ brother King King of Parthia 80/79-78/7
King of Parthia 67/6-58/57 ~ Ashiabatar, ment 87 † shortly after Gotarzes I Gotarzes I rebel king 77-75 at Susa
murdered by his sons Orodes ? ~ Aryazate (ment 88), dt of or sister to King of Parthia 75-67/66 ousted by Phraates III
and Mithradates Tigranes II King of Armenia 95-55 ~ brother King rival king 67/66-c.62 until eliminated
~ Teleonike ~ Azate, sister Mithradates II ~ Piruztana, ment 68
~ Siake, sister
     
RE17 RE23 RE1   2 not in RE not in RE
see Armenia Mithradates =?= Mithradates III (or IV) Orodes II         daughter Orodes I             Ispubarza Arsaces (XVIII)
King of Atropatene 67 governor of Media King of Parthia 58/7-38 King of Parthia 86-80/79 (or 81/80-76/75) ment 80-75 personal name not known
King of Parthia 58/7-55,  killed by his son Phraates IV ~ Tigranes of King of Parthia 80-75 ~ brother King King of Parthia 63-60
† 54 exc by Orodes II 1 ~ Laodice, dt of Antiochus I Armenia expelled Orodes I
~ daughter of Tigranes II King of Commagene 69-36 ~ Ispubarza, sister
king of Armenia 95-55 2 ~ ignota
   
RE2 A1162 T236 RE4 RE1   P395 not in RE M640 RE24
Artavasdes II Tiridates II Pacorus I         Phraates IV         total 30 sons Mithradates V
King of Atropatene a.36 - c.31 not an Arsacid, general, coruler with father 51-38 King of Parthia 38-3/2 BC most exc. By rival King of Parthia 12-9 BC
Atropatene ruled by Parthia c.31-20 rival King of Parthia 32/1-25 BC general 51 and 40-38 poisoned by wife Musa and their son Phraates IV
King of Armenia Minor c.31-20 † p 23 in exile in Roman territory † 38 BC in battle Phraates V
* c.59 † 20 BC a possible son or descendent is a ~ daughter of 1 to 4 ~ Olennieire, Kleopatra, 
 ~ Athenais, dt of C. Iulius son of Tiridates, who was a Tigranes II Baseirta and Bistheibanaps
Antiochus I of Commagene decurion of an alae recruited from  K. of Armenia 95-55 5 ~ Thea Urania Musa from Italy
king 69-36 Parthian deserters  coruler 2 BC-3/4AD with her son
  5   1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4
RE4c A1044   not in RE J44 RE3 P394 not in RE   R65 RE1 S515 RE1 P396 not in RE V994 RE2 S151 RE2
Ariobarzanes II         Darius II         Iotape Phraates V       Rhodaspes     Saraspadanes   Phraates           Vonones I   Orodes III
King of Atropatene 20 BC- 6 BC prince of Media Atropatene (named Phraatakes) † at Rome as (Seraspadanes) hostage of Rome 10/9 BC hostage of Rome 10/9BC King of Parthia 
King of Armenia 2-4 AD ~  Mithridates III youngest son hostage of Rome † at Rome as † 35 AD on way to Parthia to King of Parthia 8/9 AD-c.12 c.3/4-6/7 AD
Media Atropatene ruled by  ~ Arsacid princess King of Commagene King of Parthia 2BC-3/4AD since 10/9BC hostage of Rome become a rival king Roman candidate murdered
Parthian Kings frrom 6 BC possibly dt of Phraates IV 20 BC - ? overthrown and killed since 10/9BC King of Atropatene 12
2AD  ~ Musa his mother ? ? ? ? King of Armenia 12-18
see Armenia       exiled 18  † 19 exc.
                       
A1155 RE7   V995 RE3 T237 RE5 M443 not in RE
Artabanus II (III)           daughter                                   Vonones II Tiridates III Meherdates (Mithradates VI)
King of Atropatene 6BC-10/11 AD King of Atropatene 10/11-51 King of Parthia 35-36 Roman hostage
King of Parthia 10/11 AD-38 (or 40)  ~ King of King of Parthia 51 † grd son of Phraates IV attempted rebellion
Hyrcania 1 ~ concubine by one of the hostages. vs Gotarzes II in 49-50 but
Roman candidate captured and mutilated
  fosterson ? adopted ? 1   1
M441 RE3 V259 RE2 A1156 RE8 A1153 RE1 RE Kin 3 D10 RE9 O152 RE3 M453-454 G195 RE1 V940 RE1 P31 RE2 T238 RE6
Megabates   Vardanes I Artabanus   Arsaces II   Cinnamus   Dareios Orodes    daughter   Gotarzes II Vologaeses I     Pacorus       Tiridates I
King of Parthia † 39 killed King of Armenia (Kinnamos) Roman King of Armenia King of Parthia 38 King of Parthia 51-76/80 King of Atropatene King of Armenia
38-45 by Gotarzes II 34-35 King of Parthia 37 hostage 35 and 37-42 King of Parthia 43/44-51 last coins 79 51-c.72 53-60 and 63-75
† murdered ~ ignota †35 murdered abdicated 37  ~ Mithradates † 51
† 39 killed only ment by Josephus M641 RE28 son of Vonones II or children
name very odd satrap Artabanus II (III)
     
V260 RE2 A371     V260 not in RE V941 not in RE not in RE P32 RE3 A1157 RE9   O156 RE2 ? M444 RE25
filius Vardanis   son   Vardanes (II)   Vologaeses II   Meherdates   Pacorus II       Artabanus III (IV)     Osrhoes I         Mithridates IV (or VII)
rival King of Parthia 55-58 † 39 killed rebel K of Parthia King of Parthia † 116 King of Parthia 77/8-108/109 rival King of Parthia 79-81 King of Parthia 108/9-127/8 (Meherdates or Meherdotes)
? = Vardanes II, son of c.55-58 77-80 + 89/90?? attempted uprising or King of Parthia 77/8-114/5 deposed 116-117 King of Parthia 129-140
Vologaeses I ? coins 77-78 against Trajan last mention 115 King of Armenia 90 rival king 116-117
         
V942 RE2   S169 S170 RE San1   E136 RE1   P131 RE1 not in RE P132 RE1 S171 not in RE V946 RE4
ignotus Vologaeses III       Sanatruces Exedares     Parthamasiris   Meredates   daughter Parthamaspates Sanatruces II     Vologaeses IV
King of Parthia 104-108 King of Parthia 111/2-147/8 King of Armenia (or Axidares) King of Armenia (Mithradates)   Roman King of Parthia 116-117 rival king of Parthia 116 King of Parthia
King of Armenia 117/8-144 c.75-c110 King of Armenia 113-114 King of   prisoner installed by Imp Trajan † ante father in battle 147/8-191/2
110-113 † 114 deposed by Characene in   116-129 King of Osrhoene 118-123 King 145 ?? †193
    deposed by Osrhoes I Imp Trajanus Mesopotamia   murdered by cousin 
      c.130/1-150/1   Parthamaspates 116  
not in RE V943 RE3 A1161 not in RE       V947 RE5   T179 RE8
Ghadana Vologaeses    Artases       Vologaeses Vologaeses V        Tiridates  
regent 135 King of Armenia  King of Armenia            ? = V943 King  King of Parthia 191/2-207/8 King of Armenia c.215
 ~ Pharasmanes II 116/7-p.136 ruled 41 years     of Armenia 116 King of Armenia (as II) 180-191 King of Parthia 217-222 ???
K. of Iberia unknown kings     1  ~ sister to Amazasp II
p.136-160     K of Iberia c.185-189
    1
S546 RE5 A1566 RE182 A1558 cf RE182 not in PIR or RE V948 RE6 A1158 RE10 A1154 not in RE not in PIR or RE O157 not in RE
Sohaemus Aurelius Pacorus Aurelius Merithates Osrhoes II Vologaeses VI     Artabanus IV (V)     Arsaces II     Rev I   Chosroes I (Khosrov I)
King of Armenia  King of Armenia † aged 56 King of Parthia 190 King of Parthia  rival King of Parthia 213-224 King of Armenia King of Iberia King of Armenia
c.164-175/180 160-163 controlled Media 207/8-226 (coins 228) King of Atropatene 213-224 c.220 189-216 c.191-217
senator and consul ?? † 226 in battle † 224 in battle by Ardashir I the succeeding
Arsacid expelled by Sassanid 1st king of Sassanid dynasty maternal uncle
dynasty
   
  A1165 not in PIR or RE T241 RE9
daughter Artavasdes Vachagan I Tiridates II
Caracalla sought † 226/227 King of Albania King of Armenia 217-252
her in marriage 216 in Cayxasus
 
not in PIR or RE T242 not in RE
Khosrov II (Chosroes II)   Tiridates (III)
King of Armenia 252 subking of Armenia
† 252 murdered, 272 - p-293
Sassanid kings reigned 252-293
 
PLRE  
Tiridates IV or (III)       Khosrovidukht
King of Armenia 287-296 * 252
and 298-c.330 (or 318) Christian lady
1st Christian king 301
or son of Tiridates II if the boy
who was saved in 252 is the same
Kings of Armenia