Created: 28th August 2021
Update: 28th August 2021
Notes: Sophene was originally a province in Armenia. Borders on Armenia Maior, Cappadocia, Commagene and Mesopotamia.
Descent from Zariadris is uncertain.
Note that king Abdissares is no longer considered a king of Sophene, but of Adiabene.
Literature Barrett, Antony A.: "Sohaemus, King of Emesa and Sophene", in The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 98, 1977, p.153-159 (argues that the Sohaemus appointed
king of Sophene is Sohaemus, king of Emesa)
Bedoukian, Paul Z.: "Coinage of the Armenian Kingdoms of Sophene and Commagene", in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society) , Vol. 28 1983, p. 71-88
Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I,Leiden, 2007, p.96
Frankfort, Therese.: "La Sophene et Rome", in Latomus 22, 1963, p.181-190
Marciak Michal: "Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene: Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West", Leiden, The Netherlands, 2017,
p.68-77 (coin name Mori is not the name of a king Morphilig, as proposed by most scholars, but of a mint Morima in Cappadocia), p.113-156 (kinglist p.154-156)
Nercessian, Y.T.: "Coinage of the Armenian Kingdom of Sophene (ca. 260-70 B.C.)", in Armenian Numismatic Journal, vol. Vol. 7 (37), 2011, p.53-64
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Near Eastern Royalty and Rome 100-30 BC", University of Toronto Press 1990, sections on Sophene (pp.105-106 and 280-291) with stemma 9 at bookend.
Toumanoff, Cyril: "Toumanoff_Studies in Christian Caucasian History", Georgetown University, 1963, p.277-305 (chapter III The Orontids of Armenia),
Changes 2021.08.28 initial version
RE3   RE9
Xerxes         Orontes III (IV)
king of Armenia-Sophene last Orontid
post 228-post 212 king of Armenia Maior 220-before 190
besieged c.212 overthrown by Artaxias I
murdered by his wife
~ Antiochis, dt of Seleucus II,
king of Syria 246-225
Zariadris (Zareh)       Ptolomaeus
strategos of Sophene c.202-c.163 grandson og Arsames
king of Sophene 188-c.163 founder of the dynasty
of Commagene c.163
king c.163-c.130
  see separate stemma
king of Sophene c.163 (or earlier) -??
name Morphilig is an error
king of Sophene between Mithrobuzanes and Artanes
attested only through coins
Artanes (Arsakes, Orontes IV) Tigranes the Great
king of Sophene ??- c.95 * c.140 c.55 aged 85
no coinage known, King of Armenia 95-c.55
deposed by Tigranes II of Armenia King of Syria 83-69
no ruling dynasty in King of Kings c.87
Sophene until 54 AD 2 ~ Cleopatra dt of Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithrobuzanes Tigranes the Younger
viceroy of Sophene fled to Parthia 66
69 killed in battle King of Sophene 66/65 appointed by Pompey and deposed by him 66/65
annexed 69 imprisoned, released 58, no further mention
~ dt of Phraates III king of Parthia c.69-c.57 BC
J541 RE Samp2
C. Iulius Sampsiceramus II
priest King of Emesa 14-42 AD
~ Iotape, dt of Mithridates III, KIng of Commagene from 20BC
J582 RE Sohaemus 4
Gaius Julius Sohaemus Philocaesar Philorhomaeus,
King of Emesa 54-73 , succeeded his brother Azis
King of Sophene 54-c.60 appointed by NERO
ornamenta consularia,
~ Drusilla, dt of king Ptolemy of Mauretania
see dynasty of Emesa