VIIII (IX) Hispana Update 2016-11-13    
1 Real-Encyclopädie article Legio by Ritterling p.1664-1670      
2 Birley, Eric: "The Fate of  the Ninth Legion", 1971, p.316-325, in Eric Birley "The Roman Army Papers 1929-1986", Amsterdam, 1988
History from 30 BC to 284 AD        
Date Action Legionary HQ Modern name Province Comment
58 BC 9th legion commanded by Caesar in Gaul        
58-45 Caesar's Gallic and civil wars        
46/45 legion demobilised and veterans received land        
44 ? reformed by Octavian from veterans        
43 first mention in the III virs' entry in Rome        
42 battle of Philippi       probably recived title Macedonica
30 based in Spain        
27-19 Cantabrian Wars in Spain, from which it gained it's title     Hispania  
post 19 served in the Balkans (Illyricum) Aquileia Aquileia Italia  
6-9 AD Pannonian revolt        
9 stationed in Pannonia     Pannonia  
14 involved in mutiny after Augustus' death        
20-23 Numidian campaign against Tacfarinas     Africa  
24 returned to Pannonia Siscia Sisak in Croatia Pannonia  
43 AD invasion of Britain     Britannia  
c.43 stationed in Britain Lindum Lincoln Britannia  
69 a vexillation fought for Vitellius       1st battle of Bedriacum
c.71 moved North to Eburacum Eburacum York Britannia  
83 Domitian's Chatti war (vexillation)        
84/85 Domitian's Dacian war (vexillation)        
108 moved North to Carlisle (last formal attestation) Luguvalium Carlisle Britannia  
c.121 moved to Germania (possibly just a vexillation) Noviomagus Nijmegen Germania Inferior  
122 ?? destroyed by Caledonians (hypothesis)       almost certainly disproved now
c.130 ?? transferred to the East       evidence lacking
132-135 ?? destroyed in 2nd Jewish revolt (hypothesis)       almost certainly disproved now
140 possibly attested        
161 ?? destroyed in Armenia (hypothesis))       Cassius Dio lxxx,2,1
162 not mentioned in list of all legions       ILS2288