Created: 10th November 2014
Update:  19th August 2018
Status Republic: Patrician:     Pleb. Nobilis:       Senatorial:      Eques Romanus:      Local magistrates  
Republican Family / Cognomen
Patrician n/a
Pleb. Nobilis n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Local magistrat. n/a
Uncertain n/a
Imperial Family / Cognomen
Imperators n/a
Consular n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Equestrian (mil) n/a
Local magistrat. n/a
Uncertain n/a
Republican Consuls, Tribunes with consular power, Dictators, Magister Equitum, Censors n/a
Imperial Consuls and Emperors (Augusti and Caesars) n/a incl. 0 emperors
Notes: 1 Kingdom called Regnum Bosporanum or Cimmerian Bosporus (Crimea).
2 Most kings are only known from their coins, which thus provide their approximate regnal dating. With Mithradates VI the Pontic (originally Bithynian) calendar came in use, for example the Pontic era 
year 1 = 297 BC; year 247 = 51/50 BC (October 51 to October 50), year 281 is = 17/16 BC, year 304 = 7//8 AD, year 420 = 123/124 and year 605 =308/309. 
 The calendar became known as A.B. (Anno Bospori). King Asander did not use this calendar, in stead his coins refer to regnal years. He reigned 29 years, the first 4 as archon.
3 There is no evidence of descent for the kings following Cotys III (ruled 227/8-233/4). The assumptions about descent made for the entries in Wikipedia are just guesswork.
4 Regnal dates are generally based on Frolova's studies. Frolova however believes Queen Dynamis died in 14 BC and that after Polemo I's death in 9/8BC until AD 13 the rulers are unknown. 
However now that Aspurgus is definately shown to be the son of Aspander (and Dynamis), the other theory, that Dynamis ruled alone until 7/8 AD seems likelier. 
The confusion stems from the different monograms on the coins in this period. Thus one monogram is used 9/8 BC to 7/8 AD, a second 8/9 AD to 9/10 AD 
and a third 10/11 to 12/13AD, indicating different rulers. The monogram "BAP", which definately belongs to Aspurgus, is first attested in 14/15 AD.
It could stand for BA(sileus)P(heskuporis), suggesting Aspurgus also had this Thracian name through his mother.
5 In 1983 a coin dated to the year 277 = 21/20 BC was discovered defining Dynamis as reigning queen. This implies that King Asander was dead 4 years earlier than 17/16BC, the date of Dynamis.
an earlier coin of a reigning Queen. This also moves the start-date of his 29 year reign 4 years back. 
6 In 8/9 AD and 9/10 AD Bosporan coins bear a so far unidentified monogram indicating Aspurgus did not succeed Queen Dynamis at once.
7 Philocaesar = "amicus Caesaris = friend of Caesar",  Philoromaios  = "amicus populi Romani = friend of Rome" .
Literature Anokhin, V.A.: "Monetnoe delo Bospora", 1986 deals with all the coinage of the Bosporan kingdom. [in Russian, NOT AVAILABLE to me]
Barrett, Anthony A.: "Gaius' Policy in the Bosporus" in Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol. 107 (1977), p.1-9
postulates that Polemon II was probably not king of Bosporus 38-41. He assumes king Aspurgus was the 4th husband of queen Dynamis, which seems disproved now.
Bongard-Levine, Gregori, Kochelenko, Gennadi and Kouznestov, Vladimir: " Les fouilles de Phanagorie : nouveaux documents archéologiques et épigraphiques du Bosphore", 
In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 150ᵉ année, N. 1, 2006. p.268-278; New inscription (AE2006-1231) states king
 Aspurgos was the son of king Asandrochos (= Asandros) thus finally closing discussion of whether Aspurgos was the son or husband of queen Dynamis.
Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I, Leiden, 2007, p.112-114
Frolova, Nina A and Ireland, Stanley: "The coinage of the Bosporan Kingdom : from the first century BC to the middle of the first century AD ",  British Archaeological Reports 1102, Oxford 2002
Frolova, Nina A.: "The Coinage of the Kingdom of Bosporus: AD 242–341/342", British Archaeological Reports 166, Oxford 1983: her dating of kings is used below
Frolova, Nina A.: "The coinage of the Kingdom of Bosporus, A.D. 69-238", British Archaeological Reports 56, Oxford 1979: her dating of kings is used below
Gajdukevic, Viktor F.: "Das Bosporanische Reich", Berlin 1974, used for dating the Spartocid dynasty.
Minns, Ellis H.: "Scythians and Greeks", Cambridge University Press, 1913, p.571-586 history of the Spartocid dynasty and p.586-611 the Pontic dynasty from 107 BC to 342/3.
Nawotka, Krzysztof: "Asander of the Bosporus: His Coinage and Chronology", in American Journal of Numismatics, Vol. 3/4 (1992), p.21-48. He doubts whether the coins with Dynamis as queen means that
Asander had died. He suggests Asanders reign ended end of 16 BC or 15 BC, when Scribonius revolted. And his reign started in 46 BC and thus ruled 31/32 years and not 29.
Nawotka, Krzysztof: "The Attitude towards Rome in the Political Propaganda of the Bosporan Monarchs", in Latomus, T. 48, 1989, p.326-338 is sceptical that King Aspurgus had a
thronename of Rhescuporis.
Parfenov, V.N.: "Dynamis, Agrippa und der Friedensaltar: Zur militärischen und politischen Geschichte des Bosporanischen Reiches nach Asandros", in Historia Bd. 45, 1996, p.95-103
PIR J: stemma on p.203
Rostovtzeff, M.: "Queen Dynamis of Bosporus", in The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 39 (1919), pp. 88-109, shows the queen must have lived after 14/12 BC, when previous
scholars assumed her dead because king Polemon married Pythodoris. He assumes king Aspurgus (a Sarmatian) was her 4th husband, not her son. but admits an inscription says
Aspurgus was the son of an "Asandrochos", who is usually identified as Asandros.
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Dynasts in Pontus", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Bd.II,7.2, 1980, pp.913-930 with stemma opposite p.928
Werner, Robert.: "Die Dynastie der Spartokiden", in Historia Vol. 4, 1955, pp.412-444 on the dynasty before Mithradates VI. He has a very different geneology for the kings following Pairisades II (p.430).
Thus Spartokos IV rules to c.215 and is followed by his daughter Queen Kamasarye c.215-175, who married her cousin Pairisades III. Her son Pairisades IV was succeeded by his two sons Spartokos V
and Leukon II and finally by Pairisades V, the last Spartocid king. All this is disputed by Gajdukevic and not generally accepted by scholars.
Changes 19.08.2018 New header, reference list much expanded plus many updates. Also the Spartocid dynasty has been added.
dates folllow Gajdukevic.
Spartokos I
Archon of Bosporus 438/7-433/2
Thracian mercenary
RE4   RE12
Satyros I          Seleukos
Archon of Bosporus 433/2-389/8 Archon of Bosporus 433/2-393/2
RE3   not in RE not in RE
Leukon I             daughter             Gorgippos       Metrodoros
Archon of Bosporus 389/8-349/8 ~ Hekataios, king ruled Sinderland 389/8-? †hostage murdered c.389
King of the Sindi and other tribes of Sinderland by Sarmatians
RE1   RE2 not in RE not in RE
Pairisades I       Spartokos II       Apollonios Komosarve
Archon of Bosporus 349/8-311/0 Archon of Bosporus 349/8-344/3 mention 346
~ cousin Komosarve ~ cousin Pairisades I
RE5   RE4 RE11
Satyros II         Prytanis         Eumelos
Archon of Bosporus 311/0-310/9 Archon of Bosporus 310/9 Archon of Bosporus 310/9-304/3
ruled 9 months † killed by Eumelos † in carriage accident
† killed in war with Eumelos
RE6     RE3  
Pairisades   children   Spartokos III
fled to the Scythians † killed by Eumelos Archon and King of Bosporus 304/3-284/3
from Eumelos 31079 first to style himself king (basileus) of Bosporus
Pairisades II
King of Bosporus 284/3-c.245
mention 252 (or 250)
RE4 RE4   RE6
Spartokos IV       Leukon II   Satyros III
King of Bosporus c.245-c.240 King of Bosporus c.240-c.220 ??
start of Bosporan royal mint
not in RE
Archon of Bosporus c.220-c.200
not king, therefore
perhaps not a Spartocid
cf RE4
Spartokos V
King of Bosporus c.200-c.180
uncertain descent, but a Spartocid
not in RE
Kamasarye Philoteknos
queen regent for her son
1 ~ Pairisades III (RE3)
King of Bosporus c.180-c.150
? nephew of Spartokos V 
2 ~ Argotas son of Isanthes
Pairisades IV Philometor  
King of Bosporus c.150-c.125
Pairisades V
King of Bosporus c.125-c.109
abdicated in favour of Mithradates Eupator
† 108 killed by Saumakos
not in RE
King of Bosporus 108-107
Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysos (I of Bosporus)
* 131/2 † 63 suicide aged 69
King of Pontus 120-63
King of Bosporus 107-63 (new dynasty) 
1 ~  Laodice, his sister
6 ~  concubine Adobogionis from Galatia
1   1 6
RE1   RE2 RE15 RE28
Machares     Pharnaces II Philorhomaios ?   Mithradates II Zenon of Laodicea
Philorhomaios * c.97 of Pergamon  rhetor at Laodicea
viceroy King of Bosporus 63-47 (his mother was married to Menodotus of Pergamon) ment 40 BC
of Bosporus King of Pontus 48-47 King of Bosporus 47 appointed by Caesar see stemma Antonius Zeno
80/79 - 65 † suicide † 47 killed by Asandros in battle † c.46 killed by Asandros
after failed revolt ~ Sarmation woman
RE8   D211 RE1 not in RE P531 RE2
Darius         Dynamis Philorhomaios                 Arsaces   Polemon I (Polemo I)
King of Pontus c.39-37 † * c.67 Queen of Bosporus † 7/8 AD rebel King of Pontus 37/6 King of Pontus 37-9/8 BC
installed by Antonius, ruler alone 21/20-17/6 BC and 8 BC-7/8AD † 37/6 King of Bosporus 14-9/8  BC
last Mithradatid king installed by M. Antonius King of Armenia Minor 34/3- p 31BC
of Pontus 1 ~ 47 Asandros (or Asander) Philoromaios (A1197 RE4) † 9/8 BC killed by the Sarmatian Aspurgians
* c.113 († aged 93), epitropos (governor) of Bosporus 48 when he revolted 1 ~ Dynamis, Queen of Bosporus
Archon 49/8-c.45/4 and King of  Bosporus c.45/4-c.21/20 BC
He was previously married to a Glycaria. 2 ~ c.12 BC Pythodoris (P1114 RE1)
2 ~ Scribonius, (S256), claimed to be grdson of Mithradates VI * c.29 BC † 33 AD or by 38
usurper king of Bosporus c.15/14 BC queen of Pontus 8BC-33AD or 38/9
† killed by people  possibly grd dt of M. Antonius, triumvir
3 ~ Polemon I (Polemo I)
King of Bosporus 14-9/8  BC, appointed by Rome
1   2  
A1265 RE Asp 1   R61 RE1 A900 RE130  
(Ti. Iulius Aspurgus) Philoromaios Rhescuporis I see stemma of   Antonia Tryphaena
later Philocaesar Philoromaios monogram KNE 8/9 and 9/10 Antonius Zeno Queen of Pontus 33?-38
King of Bosporus 10/11 AD -37/8 ?? King of Bosporus 8-10/11 AD
recognized as king by Rome 14/15 AD ?? thronename of Aspurgus ~ C. Iulius Cotys VIII
received Roman citizenship and probably not supported by Frolova King of Thracia, † by 19 AD
took the name Tiberius Iulius.
~ Gepaipyris, ruling queen 37/8-38/9
dt of Cotys VIII of Thracia
and grd dt of Polemo I, 
M455 RE Mith 16   C1556 RE Kotys10 G168 RE1   J472 RE Pol 3
Ti. Iulius Mithradates III      Ti. Iulius Cotys I   see stemma of   Gepaipyris       Iulius Polemon II
Philogermanicus Philopatris Philocaesar Philoromaios kings of Thracia ruler of Bosporus 37/8-38/9 King of Pontus 38-64
King of Bosporus 39/40-44/5 King of Bosporus 45-62/3 or 68/9 with her son Mithradates III King of Cilicia 41-68/9
recognized by Imp. Claudius 41 1st archireus Sebastoi (high priest of Augustus) ~ Ti. Iulius Aspurgus King of Bosporus 38-41 appointed by Imp. Caligula
deposed by Imp. Claudius 45 ? deposed by Imp. Nero, since coins stop King of Bosporus but doubtful if he exercised any actual power
roman prisoner 49-68 ? part of Roman province Moesia Inf 63-68 10/11 AD -38/9  64 Pontus part of Roman province of Galatia
† 68 exc. by Imp. Galba † 68/69 † 68/9
~ Eunice from Greece
regent of Bosporus 68-69
J512 RE Rhes2
Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis I (or II)
Philocaesar Philoromaios
King of Bosporus 68/9-91/2
kingdom restored by Galba
J550 RE Iulius 463
Ti. Iulius Sauromates I
Philocaesar Philoromaios
King of Bosporus 93/4-123/4
J276 RE Kotys11
Ti. Iulius Cotys II  
Philocaesar Philoromaios
King of Bosporus 123/4-132/3
J516 RE Roi 4
Ti. Iulius Rhoemetalces
Philocaesar Philoromaios
co-ruler 131/2-132/3
King of Bosporus 132/3-153/4
not necessarily the son of Cotys II
J300 RE218 J551 RE Iulius 463a
Ti. Iulius Eupator Ti. Iulius Sauromates II
Philocaesar Philoromaios Philocaesar Philoromaios
King of Bosporus 154/5-170/1 King of Bosporus 174/5-210/1
last known coin, probably ruled to 174/5
no evidence of his descent
J513 RE Rhes3
Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis II (or III)
King of Bosporus 211/2-226/7
last mention of archireus Sebastoi (high priest of Augustus) 216
J277 RE Kotys12
Ti. Iulius Cotys III
King of Bosporus 227/8-233/4
S232 not in RE ? R62 RE Rhes4 ? J360 RE Iulius 282
(Ti. Iulius) Sauromates III     Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis III (or IV) Ti. Iulius Ininthimaeus (or Ininthimeus)
co-ruler of Bosporus 229/230-231/2 King of Bosporus 233/4-234/5 King of Bosporus 234/5-238/9
no evidence of his descent no evidence of his descent no evidence of his descent
J514 RE Rhes5 R63 RE Rhes6
Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis IV (or V)   Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis V (or VI)
no coin evidence for 239/40-241/2 Philocaesar Philoromaios
Kng of Bosporus 242/3-276/7 Some older scholars believed there to be two kings
named Rhescuporis during the reign of J514, the second
? ruling from 261/2.onwards
not in RE P343 not in RE J602 RE Teiranes S233 not in RE not in PIR RE Synges
Ti. Iulius Chedosbius (ot Khedosbios) Ti. Iulius Pharsanzes  Ti. Iulius Teiranes (or Tiranes) Ti. Iulius Sauromates IV Ti. Iulius Synges
?? King of Bosporus 279/80-285/6 co-ruler King of Bosporus 253/4 Philocaesar Philoromaios co-ruler of Bosporus 275/6 co-ruler Bosporus 258-276
only mention is on an inscription, no evidence of his descent co-ruler Bosporus 266/7; 275/6-276/7 no evidence of his descent false reading, does not exist
no coins exist King of Bosporus 276/7-278/9
no coin evidence for 279/80-284/5
no evidence of his descent
~ Aelia (A284)
S188 RE Thothorses
Ti. Iulius Thothorses (or Theothorses)
King of Bosporus 285/6-308/9
not in RE RE Rhes7   ?? RE Nana2
Ti. Iulius Rhadamsades (or Rhadamsadius)   Ti. Iulius Rhescuporis V (or VI)       Nana
King of Bosporus 309/10-322/3 King of Bosporus 314/15-341/2 † 363
no evidence of his descent sole King of Bosporus 322/3-341/2 saint of  Georgian Orthodox Church.
no further coins struck after 341/2 introduced Christianity to Iberia 332
no evidence of his descent ~ Mirian III King of Iberia
kingdom probably ended when 
conquered by the Goths