Created: 9th November 2014
Update:  24th September 2018
Status Republic: Patrician:     Pleb. Nobilis:       Senatorial:      Eques Romanus:      Local magistrates  
Republican Family / Cognomen
Patrician n/a
Pleb. Nobilis n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Local magistrat. n/a
Uncertain n/a
Imperial Family / Cognomen
Imperators n/a
Consular n/a
Senatorial n/a
Equestrian n/a
Equestrian (mil) n/a
Local magistrat. n/a
Uncertain n/a
Republican Consuls, Tribunes with consular power, Dictators, Magister Equitum, Censors 0
Imperial Consuls and Emperors (Augusti and Caesars) 0 incl. 0 emperors
Notes: Mithradates can be spelled both Mithradates (typically Greek) and Mithridates (Roman historians)
As can be seen below there is uncertainty about the ruler dates for Pythodoris Philometor and her daughter Antonia Tryphaena,
Polemon II was not the son of Polemon I, as wikipedia would have it. But controversy about Polemo II and M. Antonius Polemo continues.
Literature Barrett, Anthony A.: "Polemo II of Pontus and M. Antonius Polemo", in Historia, Bd. 27, 1978, p.437-448 concludes (in oppostion to Sullivan) that they were not the same man.
The duynast of Olba must be a generation older than Polemo II.
Bosworth, A.B. and Wheatley, P.V.: "The Origins of the Pontic House", in The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 118 (1998), p.155-164. They suggest that the early rulers of Cius and Arrhine were
not just rulers of these small towns but rulers of Mysia and Mariandynia to the east.
Braund, David: "Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of the Client Kingship", New York, 1984, p. 41-50
Cojocaru, Victor: "Once more about Antonia Tryphaina", in Journal of Ancient History and Archeology, vol. 1.2, 2014, p.3-8
Cojocaru, Victor: "Antonia Tryphaina im östlichen dynastischen Netzwerk", in in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze, Alexandru Avram and James Hargrave (edited): "The Danubian Lands between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas", 
Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities (Belgrade –17-21 September 2013), p.169-175. He supports that Gepaipyris for chronological reasons cannot be the daughter of
Antonia Tryphaena but is a sister of Cotys VIII of Thracia.
Dmitriev, Sviatoslav: "Claudius' Grant of Cilicia to Polemo", in The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 53, 2003, pp.286-291 mentions an inscription in Cilicia of a letter of Vespasian which has a 
reference to a Iulius Polemo, indicating he was still probably king until 72  when Vespasian re-organized Cilicia.
Eder, Walter and Renger, Johannes: "Brill's Chronologies of the Ancient World , New Pauly Names, Dates and Dynasties", New Pauly Supplement I, Leiden, 2007, p.110-112
Hoben, Wolfgang: "Untersuchungen zur Stellung kleinasiatischer Dynasten in den Machtkampfen der ausgehenden romischen Republik", Mainz 1969
Kokkinos: Herodian Dynasty (2010) p.381-382 (Appendix 6 Identity of Polemo, husband of Berenice II) argues that she was married to Polemo II, but Iulia Mamaea was married to M. Antonius Polemo of Olba,
Leschhoren, W.: "Antike Ären, Zeitrechnung, Politik und Geschichte im Schwarzmeerraum und in Kleinasien nördlich des Tauros", Historia Enzelschrift Heft 81, Stuttgart, 1993, p.78-143 and 459-462
Magie, D.: "Roman Rule in Asia Minor", Princeton 1950, p.342, 364-365, 407-414, 477-478, 1229-1230 (notes 25-27), 1262-1268 (notes 13-33), 1340 (notes 29-30)
McGing, Brian C.: "The Kings of Pontus: some problems of identity and date", in Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, Neue Folge, 129. Bd., H. 1986, pp.248-259
Meyer, Eduard: "Geschichte des Königreichs Pontos", Leipzig 1879. 
Olshausen, Eckart: article “Pontos,” in Pauly-Wissowa Suppl. 15, 1978, cols 396-442, with stemma p.400.
Perl, G.: “Zur Chronologie der Königreiche Bithynia, Pontos und Bosporos", in ed. J. Harmatta, Studien zur Geschichte und Philosophie des Altertums, Amsterdam, 1968, p.299-330
discusses among other problems of dating the kings Pharnaces I and Mithradates IV. He concludes that year 1 of the Bithynian calendar (later Pontic and Bosporan) is 297/296 BC.
Primo, : "Client Kingdom of Pontus between Mithridatism and Philoromanism", in T. Kaizer - M. Facella (a cura di), Client Kings and Roman Principalities, Stuttgart 2010, p. 159-179
He believes Polemo I did not die until 8/10 AD and that M. Antonius Polemon (A864) is the unnamed son of Polemon I and that he later became king of Cilicia in 41.
The two wives of Polemon II he assigns to A864. Thus Polemo II was a Iulius, not an Antonius.
Reinach, Theodore: "Mithradates Eupator, König von Pontos", Leipzig, 1895. A very detailed history of 488 pages.
Saprykin, S. Yuri: "Iz istorii pontijskogo carstva Polemonidov (po dannym ėpigrafki)", translated as "On the history of the kingdom of Pontus under the Polemons", 
in VDI (Vestnik Drevnei Istorii) 205, 1993, p.25-48 (NOT AVAILABLE TO ME))
Seibert, Jacob.: "Historische Beitrage zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit", Historia Einzelschriften Heft 10; Wiesbaden,1967, p.118-121
Settipani: Continuite (2000) p.362-367 for the descendents of Queen Pythodoris
Settipani: Continuite addenda  (2001/2004) p.51-55 discusses the confusion around 10 Polemos with new stemma;  and two more versions on p.109-111 (see stemma of Antonius Zeno).
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Dynasts in Pontus", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Bd.II,7.2, 1980, pp.913-930 with stemma opposite p.928, deals with kingdom from 37 BC to 63 AD.
Sullivan, Richard D.: "King Marcus Antonius Polemo", in The Numismatic Chronicle, Seventh Series, Vol. 19 (139), 1979, p.6-20, proposes the priest-king M. Antonius Polemo (A864)
is identical to King Polemo II, in spite of different gentilicium (Antonius vs Iulius). Use of Iulius is only documented once in papyrus of 194 AD.
Sullivan, Richard D.: "Near Eastern Royalty and Rome 100-30 BC", University of Toronto Press 1990, sections on Pontus (pp.35-48, 151-163, 323-324) with stemma 2 at bookend.
Changes 2014-12-19 added new article, Athenais' birthyear corrected from 77 to 95, added Archelaus as possible son of Mithradates VI, 
2015-01-10 added the kings and rulers prior to Mithradates II, added article by McGing
2018-09-24 New header, much expanded reference list plus many updates
not in RE
Mithradates I
ruler of Cius on the Propontis in Mysia  and Arrhine (or Marine, unknown) before 401 - ?
Ariobarzanes I  
ruler of Cius and Arrhine ? to 363/2
satrap of Phrygia Minor c.388-363/2
† 363/2 exc by Artaxerxes, King of Persia, for revolt
not in RE RE5
Ariobarzanes II           Mithradates
ruler of Cius and Arrhine 363/2-337/6 betrayed his father in 363/2
not in RE RE6
Ariobarzanes     Mithradates II
ruler of Cius and Arrhine 337/6-302
† 302 exc. by Antigonos I Monophthalmus
King of Asia Minor and Syria 306-301
Mithradates I Ctistes
(or Mithradates III)
ruler of Cius and Arrhine 302-281
1st King of Pontus 281-266/5
† 266/5 (aged 84?)
name means founder or builder
co-regent before 266/5
King of Pontus 266/5-c.256
Mithradates II
King of Pontus c.255-c.220
c.245 ~  Laodice, (RE4) 
dt of Antiochus II Theos King of Seleucid Babylonia 261-246
RE9   RE16 RE17
Mithradates III       Laodice             Laodice
King of Pontus c.220-c.185 mention 213
~  Laodice, (RE21) 222/1 ~  Antiochus III 1 (eng) ~  Antiochus Hierax (RE23), † 227, 
King of Seleucid Babylonia 223-187 ygr brother of Seleucus II Kallinikos, king of Seleucid Babylonia 246-225 
2 ~  Achaios the Younger of Seleucid Babylonia † 214 exc, 
cousin of Seleucus II Kallinikos, king of Seleucid Babylonia 246-225
RE1   RE10 RE22
Pharnaces I         Mithradates IV Philopator Philadelphus ~  Laodice Philadelphos
King of Pontus c.185-c.160/154 or King of Pontus 155/154-c.152/1 or
King of Pontus c.185-155/154 King of Pontus 160/154-c.152/1
first attested as king 155/4.
160/159 ~  Nysa of Syria, dt of 
Seleucid prince Antiochus † 193
RE11   RE2
Mithradates V Euergetes          Nysa Laodice  
King of Pontus c.152/1-120 regent of Cappadocia 130-126
first attested as king 149 † 126 exc
† 120 assasinated ~ Ariarathes V King of Cappadocia 163-130
~  Laodice, (RE23), regent 120-116 (113?)
dt of Antiochus IV
King of Seleucid Babylonia 175-164
RE28 eldest daughter RE29   RE12 RE13 RE5 RE6 RE4
Laodice               Laodice   ~  1 Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysos           Mithradates Chrestos Nysa     Roxane       Stateira
* c.140 † c.90 exc * 131/132 † 63 suicide joint ruler 120-c.116 capt by Lucullus murdered by suicide to avoid
regent of Cappadocia 111 by husband King of Pontus 120-63 ment 116/5 brother Mithradates VI capture by Romans
(1) ~ Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia Mithradates King of Bosporus 107-63 † exc. by brother
son of Ariarathes V and Nysa 2 ~  c.89/8-c.72/71 Monime, † 72/1 dt of Philopoemen of Miletus
King 130-111 (or 116) 3 ~ 86-72/71 Berenice (RE19) of Chios † c.72/1 suicide
assassinated by Mithradates VI 4 ~  until 63 Stratonike (RE12) from Kabeira in Pontus
c.102/1 (2) ~ Nicomedes III of Bithynia 5 ~  until 63 Hypsikrateia
King 128/7-c.94 6 ~  various concubines
7 ~  concubine Adobogiana (RE1), 
dt of tetrarch Deiotaros of Galatia
1 1 2 6 6 6 6 6 7
RE27   RE1 RE6 RE1 RE6 RE1 RE1 not in RE not in RE
Cleopatra     Drypetina     Athenais Philostorgos II   Mithradatis       Nysa       Eupatra   Orsabaris       Cleopatra   Adobogiona
* c.110 † post 64 † c.66 killed by her * 85 ment by Cicero † 63 suicide † 63 suicide capt by in triumph of Pompeius 61 the younger full sister of Mithradates of Pergamon
94 ~  Tigranes I  guards to avoid as regent 50 eng.  Ptolemaeus XII Auletes eng. Ptolemaeus Pompeius 63 ? = Musa Orsobaris
the Great capture by Pompeius ~ Ariobarzanes II Philopator King of  Egypt 55-51 of Cyprus, brother of in triumph of ruler of Prusias to 47 ~ Castor II Saecundaros
King of Armenia King of Cappadocia 63/2-52/1 Ptolemaeus XII Auletes Pompeius 61 ? ~ Socrates Chrestos of  tetrarch of Galatia c.40-36
? ~ Lycomedes, priest-
SONS OF MITHRADATES VI prince of Comana 47-30
1   6 1 6 1 1 4 6 6 6 6 7 ??
RE14   RE9 RE1 RE6 RE1 RE2 RE1 RE6 RE4 RE17 RE4 RE15 RE12
Mithradates    Ariarathes IX   Arkathias   Artaphrenes Machares   Pharnaces II      Xiphares   Dareios   Xerxes   Cyros   Oxathres   Mithradates     Archelaus  
general 85 Eusebes Philopator general 88-86 * c.104 capt by sub king * c.97 † 65/64 exc. capt by capt by in triumph of capt by of Pergamon general of
†85 emprisoned * c.108 † 86 Pompeius 63 of Bosporus King of Pontus 48-47 by his father Pompeius 63 Pompeius 63 Pompeius 61 Pompeius 63 King of Bosporus 47 Mithridates VI
by father King of Cappadocia ? = Ariarthes in triumph of 80 - 65 † King of Bosporus 63-47 in triumph of in triumph of in triumph of appointed by Caesar 88-86
c.100-c.86 † Pompeius 61 † 47 killed by Asandros Pompeius 61 Pompeius 61 Pompeius 61
? = Arkathias Kings of Cappadocia
  priest-prince of Comana-Pontica
RE8 not in RE D211 RE1   P531 RE2
Darius         Arsaces         Dynamis Philorhomaios 3 ~ 1 Polemon I (Polemo I)
King of Pontus c.39-37 † rebel King of Pontus 37/6 * c.67 Queen of Bosporus † 7/8 AD son of Zenon (Zeno) of Laodicea in Phrygia
installed by M.Antonius, † 37/6 ruler alone 21/20-17/6 BC and 8 BC-7/8AD (full name probably M. Antonius Zeno, see stemma Antonius Zeno)
last Mithradatid king of Pontus installed by M.Antonius King of Pontus 37-9/8 BC amicus et socius populi Romani (Eusebes) 26 BC
1 ~ Asandros (or Asander) (A1197) King of Bosporus 14-9/8 BC
King of  Bosporus c.45/4-c.21/20 BC King of Armenia Minor 34/3- p 31BC
2 ~ Scribonius (S256) † 9/8 BC killed by the Sarmatian Aspurgians
claimed to be grdson of Mithradates VI 2 ~ c.12 BC Pythodoris Philometor (P1114 RE1)
usurper king of Bosporus c.15/14 BC * c.29 BC † 33 AD or by 38/9
exc. by the people dt of Pythodorus of Tralles and possibly dt of an Antonia, dt of M. Antonius, triumvir
ruling queen of Pontus 8BC-33AD or 38/9 (attested coins 23/4 or 22/3 and 26/7 or 25/6)
reaffirmed by Augustus in 3/2 BC
2 ~ Archelaus I Philopatris Ktistes King of Cappadocia 36 BC-17 AD
1   2   2 2
A1265 RE Asp 1     A900 RE130 A1168 RE Art 3 A864 RE88
Ti. Iulius Aspurgus Philoromaios elder son     Antonia Tryphaena     Zeno   M. Antonius Polemo
King of Bosporus 10/11 AD -37/8 assisted as private Ruling Queen of Pontus 33?-38 Atraxias III as probably = unnamed elder son of Polemo I
~ Gepaipyris, ruling queen 37/8-38/9 citizen his mother or from 38-55/6 with Polemon II King of Armenia 18-34 lord/high priest (archiereus)
dt of Cotys VIII of Thracia in her reign ~ C. Iulius Cotys VIII † 35 AD of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia
and grd dt of Polemo I ? = A864 → King of Thracia, † by 19 AD (? = L. Antonius Zeno) c.17 (attested 27/8) -38
?? King of Cilicia 41-68/9
(see stemma Antonius Zeno)
  R68 RE3 P1115 G168 RE1   J472 RE Pol 3 C1555 RE9
kings of Bosporus (C.Iulius) Rhoemetalces III Pythodoris (II)     Gepaipyris       (C.) Iulius Polemon II (Polemo II)     (C.Iulius) Cotys IX  
King of Thracia 19 and c.38-46 ? or sister to Cotys VIII also M. Antonius Polemo on coins King of Armenia Minor 38-a.54
installed by CALIGULA ~ C. Iulius  ruler of Bosporus 37/8-38/9 * c.15 King of Pontus 38-64 after Roman rule 17-38
archon Athens 36/37 Rhoemetalces II with her son Mithradates III King of Cilicia 41-68/9 installed by CALIGULA
murdered by his wife King of Thracia 19-26 (38) ~ Ti. Iulius Aspurgus Pontus became part of Roman province of Galatia
~ Pythodoris King of Bosporus as Pontus Polemonianus 64
10/11 AD -38/39  King of Bosporus 38-41 appointed by Imp. Caligula 
but doubtful if he exercised any actual power
† 68/69 or 72
c.54 1 ~ Iulia Berenice  of Judaea (J651)
2 ~ Iulia Mamaea, dt of king Sohaemus of Emesa
2   2
Rhoemetalces   Polemo