Roman Provinces under the Empire

27BC to 284AD

Update Status

  • Updated 8th October 2015: added Asturia-Callaecia and Tres Galliae, corrected Achaia, Cilicia, Illyricum, Numidia and Raetia and added comments to many provinces.
  • Updated 6th September 2015: corrections to Corsica, Mesopotamia, Osrhoene and Sardinia.
  • Lycia, Bithynia and the separate province of Pontus needs further research.
  • As of 22nd January 2014 only two provinces have been implemented, namely Cappadocia and Galatia.


  • The period covered is from Augustus' reorganization of the Republican provinces into senatorial and imperial in 27 BC until 284, when Diocletian became emperor and made a complete reorganization.
  • The base source used for provinces and changes is Wittke et alia: "Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt", Stuttgart/Weimar 2012 supplemented by articlers in RE and articles. The control of some provinces was transferred back and forth between the senate and emperor giving some confusion. Also some provinces were split off and merged adding to the uncertainty. Several dates in the table below are very uncertain or approximate.
  • The indispensible source for Roman governors is Bengt E. Thomasson: Laterculi Praesidium from 1984 with later updates (most recent 2009), supported by various monographs and articles. Clicking on the name of a province gives a link to the governors of that province and some references.
  • Type is S = Senatorial province or I = Imperial province
  • = legatus Augusti pro praetore

Click on province name to see details

Province Update Type Governor Rank Years Notes
Achaia no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-15AD Part of Macedonia 146-27BC. Tiberius made Achaia part of Macedonia/Moesia under imperial legatus.
Achaia no S proconsul ex-praetor 44-284 Claudius restored Achaia to the senate as an independant province. The governor was assisted by a legatus and a quaestor. Lost Epirus under Trajan.
Aegyptus no I praefectus Aegypti eques 27BC-284 The praefectus Aegypti ranked just below the praefectus praetorio as the top equestrian office.
Africa Proconsularis no S proconsul ex-consul 27BC-284 incl. Numidia from 25BC until 198/203. Province divided into 4 dioceses: Carthaginensis, Hipponiensis and Numidica, each under a legatus, and Hadrumetina under a procurator. Assisted by a quaestor.
Alpes Cottiae no I praefectus king 27BC-63AD Governed by a local royal family under Roman suzerainity.
Alpes Cottiae no I procurator et praeses eques 63-284  
Alpes Graiae no I procurator eques 41/54-284 Separated from Raetia under Claudius. See Alpes Poeninae.
Alpes Maritimae no I procurator eques 14BC-284 Initially the governor was termed a prafectus.
Alpes Poeninae no I procurator eques 15BC-284 Also called Alpes Atractianae et Poeninae. Mostly administered together with Alpes Graiae as Alpes Graiae et Poeninae
(Gallia) Aquitani(c)a no I ex-praetor 17?-284 27BC to c.17AD part of Tres Galliae and not independent province
Arabia no I ex-praetor 105/6-284 The former kingdom of Nabataea. Governor also commanded the legion stationed there.
Armenia no I ex-consul 114-117 114-117 with Cappadocia. 117 province abandoned by Hadrian.
Asia no S proconsul ex-consul 27BC-284 Normally a one year governership. Assisted by 3 legati and 1 quaestor.
Assyria no I ? ? 115-117 117 province lost.
(Hispania) Baetica no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-284 Previously Hispania Ulterior. Assisted by a legatus and a quaestor. Lusitania detached 15BC.
(Gallia) Belgica no I ex-praetor 17?-284  27BC to c.17AD part of Tres Galliae and not independent province
Bithynia et Pontus no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-157/9AD Assisted by legatus and procurator. Governor was 109-114, 134/5 and under Antoninus Pius. Finally transferred to imperial control c.157/159.
Bithynia et Pontus no I ex-consul 157/9-222/235? Split into Bithynia and Pontus under Severus Alexander. Possibly before. Needs research.
Bithynia no I ?? ?? 222/235?-284 Research needed
Britannia no I ex-consul 43-197/216 Assisted by a leg Aug iuridicus and a procurator. Split 197 (after Clodius Albinus' death) (or 216?) into two provinces.
Britannia Inferior no I ex-praetor 197/216-284  Northern Britannia with 1 legion.
Britannia Superior no I ex-consul 197/216-284  Southern Britannia with 2 legions.
(Asturia et) Callaecia 2015-10-08 I ? 211/217-284 Called initially Hispania Superior, then just Callaecia. Diocese of Asturia et Callaecia detached from Tarraconensis.
Cappadocia 2014-01-14 I procurator eques 17/18-55  
Cappadocia 2014-01-14 I ex-consul 55-284 Joined with Galatia 54-71/72 and 76-112. From 113/14 separate again incl. Armenia Minor and Maior and from 116 also Pontus Polemoniacus and Pontus Galaticus. See Galatia for joint governors.
Caria et Phrygia no ? ? ? 244/49-284 Split off from Asia by Philippus the Arab.
Cilicia no I ex-praetor 72-284 Cilicia Pedias (Campestris) was part of Syria from 44BC until 72 AD when the province of Cilicia was reformed. Cilicia Tracheia was ruled by various independent rulers from 44 BC until being annexed around 93 AD and reunited with Cilicia Pedias in province of Cilicia.
Corsica 2015-09-06 S praefectus Corsicae eques 6- 14/37 Split from Sardinia 6AD, from Tiberius to Nero again joined with Sardinia.
Corsica 2015-09-06 S procurator Aug. eques 67-284 Split from Sardinia under Nero; then governed by praesidial curator.
Creta et Cyrenae no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-284 Assisted by a legatus and a quaestor.
Cyprus no S proconsul ex-praetor 22BC-284 Governed from Syria/Cilicia from 58 BC until 22 BC (except 48/47-30 by Egyptians). Assisted by a legatua and a quaestor.
Dacia no I ex-praetor 106-118 Conquered 106 and province formed. In 118 split into two provinces.
Dacia Inferior no I procurator Aug vice praesidis eques 118-120 Formed from Eastern part of Dacia.
Dacia Superior no I ex-praetor 118-120 Formed from Western part of Dacia.
Dacia Porolissensis no I procurator Aug vice praesidis eques 120-169/170 After 169/170 just procurator of district in Tres Daciae
Dacia Apulensis (Superior) no I ex-praetor 120-169/170 After 169/170 just procurator of district in Tres Daciae
Dacia Malvensis (Inferior) no I procurator Aug vice praesidis eques 120-169/170 After 169/170 just procurator of district in Tres Daciae
Trium Daciarum (Tres Daciae) no I ex-consul 169/170-271 Commanded all 3 Dacian provinces. Dacia destroyed in 248 and finally abandoned 271.
Dalmatia no I ex-consul 9AD-54/68 Split out from Illyricum. Initially called Illyricum Superius.
Dalmatia no I ex-consul 54/68-84 Province Dalmatia under Nero.
Dalmatia no I ex-praetor 84-c.105/110 When legio IV Flavia felix was removed from Dalmatia, Domitian downgraded governor to an ex-praetor
Dalmatia no I ex-consul c.105/110?-284 Probably returned to a consular legatus under Trajan, date unknown. By 122 it was certainly consular again.
Epirus no I procurator eques 98/117-284 Split off from Achaia by Trajan.
Galatia 2014-01-14 I ex-praetor 25/24BC-72AD
Occasionally under Augustus governed by an ex-consul. From 72-113 joined with Cappadocia
Galatia-Cappadocia 2014-01-14 I ex-consul 72-113/4 Joined with Cappadocia into a consular province
Galatia 2014-01-14 I ex-praetor 113/4-284 113/114 split from Cappadocia
Tres Galliae 2015-10-08 I ex-consul 27BC-17AD covers the 3 later provinces of Aquitania, Belgica and KLugdunensis. Also called Gallia Comata.
(Gallia) Narbonensis no S procos ex-praetor 22BC-284 Imperial province from 27BC to 22BC.
Germania no I ex-consul 27BC-14AD The was commander of the army (exercitus), not the provincia. It was a military district administered by Belgica. Army split in 14 AD into Germania Inferior and Germania Superior.
Germania Inferior no I ex-consul 14-284 The was commander of the army (exercitus), not the provincia. It was a military district administered by Belgica to c.85, when it became a province.
Germania Superior no I ex-consul 14-284 The was commander of the army (exercitus), not the provincia. It was a military district administered by Belgica to c.85, when it became a province.
Illyricum no S proconsul ex-consul? 27-11BC Returned to Augustus due to continued fighting with Dalmatians and Pannonians.
Illyricum 2015-10-08 I ex-consul 11BC-9/10AD After area was expanded by wars, split into two provinces: Dalmatia (Illyricum Superius) and military district Pannonia (Illyricum Inferius).
Judaea no I procurator eques 6AD-66 Under command of Syria until Jewish revolt in 66, when Vespasian took command. Governor called a praefectus until Claudius.
Judaea no I ex-praetor 71-117 After the revolt governed by imperial legati, at first ex-praetors and from 117 ex-consuls.
Judaea no I ex-consul 117-284 Renamed Syria Palaestina in 135.
(Gallia) Lugdunensis no I ex-praetor 17-284 27BC to c.17AD part of Tres Galliae and not an independent province
Lusitania no I ex-praetor 15BC-284 Before 15BC a military area under Hispania Ulterior (Baetica). Assisted by legatus and procurator.
Lycia no I ex-praetor 43-74 Lycia formed 43.
Lycia et Pamphylia no I ex-praetor 74-135 Galatia detached Pamphylia to Lycia 74. Became senatorial province 135, but seems still to have imperial legati for several years.
Lycia et Pamphylia no S proconsul ex-praetor 135-284 135 seems too early
Macedonia no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-15AD +44-284 .
Macedonia no I ex-consul 15-44 Returned to senate in 44.
Mauritania Caesariensis no I procurator Aug eques 42-284 From c.200 called Procurator and Praeses, by 238 just Praeses.
Mauritania Tingitana no I procurator pro legato eques 42-284 Commanded troops. Both Mauretanias were sometimes governed by 1 procurator utriusque Mauretaniae.
Mesopotamia 2015-09-06 I praefectus eques 115-117 Province lost 117.
Mesopotamia 2015-09-06 I praefectus eques 197-227 Province reformed by Septimius Severus.
Moesia no I exercitus ex-consul 27BC-c.46AD Governed from Macedonia as military district with separate commander.
Moesia no I ex-consul c.46-86 Became a province. Split into two provinces in 86.
Moesia Inferior no I ex-consul 86-284 Formerly Eastern part of province of Moesia.
Moesia Superior no I ex-consul 86-284 Formerly Western part of province of Moesia.
(Gallia) Narbonensis no I propr ex-praetor 27BC-22BC transferred to senate in 22BC.
(Gallia) Narbonensis no S procos ex-praetor 22BC-284 Assisted by a legatus and a quaestor.
Noricum no I procurator Aug eques 16BC-c.171 Administered by Rome 16BC as regnum Noricum, but province first organised under Claudius
Noricum no I eques c.171-284 Governor was leg legionis of II Italica
Numidia 2015-10-08 I exercitus or legionis ex-praetor 27BC-198/203 Merged by Augustus into Africa. From 37AD a military district governed by commander of Legio III Augusta.
Numidia no I ex-praetor 198/203-c.262 Septimius Severus made Numidia de iure into a separate province under initially a senator
Numidia no I praeses eques c.262-284 Transferred to an eques.
Osrhoene 2015-09-06 I procurator eques 195-213/4 Praesidial procurator 195-213/4, part of Mesopotamia 213/4-240 and then again a praesidial procurator.
Pannonia no I ex-consul 9AD-54/68 Carved out from Illyricum as military district. Initially called Illyricum Inferius.
Pannonia no I ex-consul 54/68-103 Province Pannonia. Split 103/107 (106?) into Pannonia Inferior and Pannonia Superior.
Pannonia Inferior no I ex-praetor 103/7-214 Eastern part of province Pannonia. Became a consular province in 214.
Pannonia Inferior no I ex-consul 214-284 Received a second legion and became a consular province in 214.
Pannonia Superior no I ex-consul 103/-284 Western part of province Pannonia.
Pontus no I praeses eques 222/235?-284 Formerly part of province of Cappadocia or of Bithynia.
Raetia et Vindelicia et Vallis Poeninae 2015-10-08 I procurator et pro legato eques 15BC-41/54 Military district after campaigns by Drusus and Tiberius. Included Alpes Graiae and Alpes Poeninae.
Raetia no I procurator eques c.47-179 Province organised by Claudius. Alpes Graiae and Alpes Poeninae separate procurators.
Raetia no I ex-praetor 179-284 Commanded legio III Italica.
Sardinia et Corsica 2016-09-06 S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-6AD Assisted by a legatus and a quaestor. Divided into Sardinia and Corsica 6 AD.
Sardinia 2016-09-06 I praefectus, then 41/54 procurator Aug. eques 6AD-67AD Separate province under imperial administration (praesidial procurator or praefectus).
Sardinia (et Corsica) no S proconsul ex-praetor 67-73 98/117-176/211 Senatorial province again under Trajan until Commodus or Septimius Severus.
Sardinia (et Corsica) no I procurator Aug et praefectus eques 73-98/117 176/211-284 Imperial administration.
Sicilia no S proconsul ex-praetor 27BC-284 Assisted by a legatus and a quaestor 
Syria no I ex-consul 27BC-194/5 Included Cilicia Pedias until 72AD. Divided into Syria Coele and Syria Phoenice.
Syria Coele no I ex-consul 194/5-284 Split from Syria.
Syria Palaestina no I ex-consul 135-284 Judaea renamed in 135. See Judaea.
Syria Phoenice no I ex-praetor 194/5-284 Split from Syria. Governor also commanded the single legion (III Gallica)
(Hispania) Tarraconensis no I ex-consul 27BC-284 Assisted by 3 legati Augusti (later iuridici). Initially called Hispania Citerior. Named after capital Tarraco. Consists of 3 dioceses (1)Asturia et Callaecia detached 211/217 as independent province, (2) Tarraconensis and (3) Carthaginiensis, detached under Diocletian.
Thracia no I procuator eques 46-100/115 Annexed when last king died.
Thracia no I ex-praetor 100/115-284 Trajan replaced the procurator with a senator.
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